All grant and loan applications submitted to TAF will be analyzed by TAF to assess the amount of direct and potential greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the proposed activities. "Direct impacts" refers to the emissions reductions achieved by the proposed project alone. "Potential impacts" refers to the emissions reductions that could be achieved should the project be successful in stimulating similar activity across the City of Toronto.
To facilitate TAF's emissions reduction assessment, all grant and loan applicants must submit adequate information about the program design and its anticipated amounts of fuel reductions by fuel type. Applicants must also propose how the project could be scaled up across the Toronto community with as much information as possible about the nature of the potential emissions reduction opportunity.
For example, the direct impact of a pilot project to retrofit one municipal swimming pool with solar thermal heating is the reduction of the amount of heating fuel offset by the heat generated by the solar panels. The potential impact of such a program would be the reduction of the heating fuel associated with retrofit of many more municipal pools - say 75 percent of the total number of existing pools. To assess this potential, the applicant, to the best of their ability, needs to submit information about the total number of pools in the City plus a reasonable estimate of how many of them could be candidates for solar thermal heating. An understanding of the type and average amount of fuel used for heating of municipal pools is also needed.
Assessment of fuel replacements (e.g. the replacement of regular diesel fuel with a biofuel) requires analysis of the emissions of the new fuel relative to the old one. In this case, TAF would require information about the amount and type of both the fuel being displaced and the fuel being adopted.
The provision of funds for emissions quantification and measurable impact assessment of projects undertaken will be recognized as a valid item in proposed project budgets.
Assessment of criteria air contaminants
In addition to quantitative analysis of greenhouse gas emissions, TAF will assess reductions of criteria air contaminants using qualitative criteria such as location and time. For example, tailpipe or home heating exhaust emissions emerging at ground level are more likely to affect local air quality than emissions occurring through tall stacks or at remote power plants and the reduction of energy use at peak times reduces the need for peak load coal-fired energy production and may contribute to a reduction in the severity of local smog events.
Final reporting requirements
Successful grant applicants must be prepared to develop a monitoring plan and report on the actual direct emissions reduction achievements associated with the activities they undertake with TAF's support. To the extent possible, final reports must include information about the nature and type of fuel reductions achieved by the project.
Verification of reported emissions reductions
For selected larger projects, TAF may conduct verification analysis to determine how the longer term impact of the project compares to its predicted and immediate results. This analysis will be undertaken at TAF's expense and will occur some time after the project has been implemented to assess the ongoing effectiveness of the measures undertaken. Co-operation with this type of follow-up impact study will be a requirement of any grant or loan contract.
Project exemptions from quantification
Some projects may not directly reduce emissions, such as policy advocacy, education and outreach, facilitation and concept development. However, where possible, the projects must include an analysis of the potential emissions reduction impacts associated with the concepts or policies being adopted.
TAF approach to quantification
TAF will maintain a third-party quantification advisor to assist staff with quantification of emissions reductions associated with TAF-supported projects and to advise the Grants and Special Projects Committee and the Mandate-Related Finance Committee on quantification matters. Where necessary, TAF will assist applicants in meeting the emissions quantification requirements set out in this policy.
TAF will use the following emissions factors to calculate emissions reduction impacts (Note: this is not an exhaustive list - other factors can be provided on request).
|Natural Gas||1.879 kg/m³||National Inventory Report 1990-2008: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada|
|Gasoline||2.3 kg/litre||Fuel Consumption Guides|
|Diesel||2.7 kg/litre||Fuel Consumption Guides|
|Electricity *||0.11 kg/kWh||National Inventory Report 1990-2011|
* Based on the average GHG intensity of Ontario's actual electricity supply in 2010, factoring in estimated transmission losses.
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