Tree Canopy Study

The City of Toronto carried out its second city-wide urban forest assessment in 2018. The 2018 Tree Canopy Study provides a snapshot of current urban forest conditions and provides information about broad changes and trends in the urban forest over time and includes information about the extent, size class, and composition of the urban forest. The Study also includes information on the amount and dollar value of several key ecosystem services provided by the urban forest.

Some highlights of the canopy study findings include the increase in canopy cover from 26.6% - 28% in 2008 to 28% - 31% in 2018. Toronto has an estimated 11.5 million trees, an increase of 1.3 million trees since 2008. The total structural value of the urban forest is estimated at $7.04 billion. Toronto’s trees are estimated to provide ecosystem services worth more than $55 million each year. This includes services such as pollution removal, avoided runoff, carbon sequestration and energy savings.

The findings of the 2018 Tree Canopy Study will help the City make evidence-based decisions about future program directions. Study findings have already been included in various City strategies and initiatives including the Ravine Strategy Implementation. Findings will also be incorporated into the development of the Strategic Forest Management Plan, a ten year plan that identifies the efforts required to achieve a healthy, sustainable urban forest with target of 40% canopy cover.

To carry out this study, the City's consultant team used software tool called i-Tree. For more information on this tool visit

Urban Forestry maintains over 600,000 street trees and 4.6 million trees in parks and ravines, making up 45% of the total urban forest in the city.

For more information visit the City of Toronto website.