Toronto’s population is growing and our demographics are changing. With growth comes challenges, including the need to invest in infrastructure to give people options for getting around, build a livable city and grow the economy. Our transit system needs to support Toronto to:

  • serve people
  • strengthen places
  • support prosperity

Changes have been proposed to how we plan for transit in this city. We want to make sure your voice is heard. We’re planning a variety of consultation opportunities so that you know what the changes are and have the opportunity to tell us what you think. We will be consulting via:

  • Public Information Centres
  • Pop-up events
  • Online survey
  • Project website
  • Webinars / virtual meetings
  • Social media

Our city and region are rapidly growing.

Between 2016 and 2031, Toronto is anticipated to grow by more than one million people, from a population of 2.73 million to over 3.76 million.

By 2041, Toronto is projected to have a population of 3,913,000.

Toronto’s economy represents 20% of the national GDP. Growth in employment in the city and region is expected to continue.

The concentration of growth in downtown Toronto is expected to continue. Transit capacity and access to downtown from across the region is needed.

By 2021, our population of those 65+ will grow by more than 59%, which will increase the need for transit capacity and access.

The growth in population and jobs and our changing demographics results in a growing demand for transportation capacity. We need to make sure our infrastructure grows to accommodate these changes.

All orders of government play a critical role in funding the transit system. This funding supports our ability to operate, maintain and grow the system to support Toronto’s transit needs.

TTC Operating Budget and Transit Subsidies

  • $2.1 Billion – 2019 TTC operating budget
  • 67% – 2018 percentage of TTC conventional operating costs covered by fares and revenues, making the TTC the most cost efficient transit system in North America.
  • $763 Million – Provided by the City of Toronto to subsidize the operations of the
  • TTC service* (includes $92 million in Provincial Gas Tax funding).  This represents the 2019 approved combined net budget for TTC conventional and Wheel-Trans.
  • $315 Million – 2019 City debt payments to fund improvements that have already been made to transit.
  • $1 Billion – Total City of Toronto subsidy for transit, funded through taxes (including property taxes, and Provincial Gas Tax).
  • Expansion and Maintenance of Transit in Toronto
  • $33.5 Billion – TTC identified need for capital investments over the next 15 years (see TTC Capital Investment Plan for more information).
  • 70% – Of capital investment costs are currently unfunded.
  • $20-30 Billion – Additional required for the City’s transit expansion needs over the next 10-15 years to support growth in the city and region.

Transit planning, delivery, construction, operations and maintenance involves multiple organizations with roles, responsibilities and expertise that sometimes overlap.

Province of Ontario

Establishes broad direction for guiding growth in the Province through the Provincial Policy Statement and the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe. Many ministries are involved in implementing the policies related to transit and transportation planning. Created Metrolinx as its regional transit agency in 2006. Contributes to funding Toronto’s transit system.


Provincial agency established through the Metrolinx Act, 2006. The regional transit authority for the GTHA with a mandate to provide leadership in coordinating, planning, financing, developing and implementing an integrated multi-modal regional transit network, for the regional area covering 21 municipalities. Operates GO Transit. Governed by a Board with up to 15 members appointed by the Province of Ontario.

City of Toronto

Local planning authority with responsibility for ensuring Toronto is a livable city. The City has responsibility over establishing local planning policies through the Official Plan that align with Provincial direction. Finances the capital and operating costs of the TTC to provide local public transportation.


An agency of the City of Toronto with exclusive authority to operate local passenger transportation. Governed by a 10-person Board, appointed by City Council (four are public members and six are City Councillors).

Other GTHA Providers

Other transit service providers and operators with authority to operate local passenger transportation in the GTHA (e.g., MiWay, York Region Rapid Transit, Brampton Transit, Durham Region Transit.) Governance of these service providers varies depending on the provider.

What is Governance?

Governance refers to the decision-making structures, processes, policies and practices in place to support the delivery of transit needs to serve the city and region.

Why do we need to invest in our transit system?

To take people where they want to go, we need:

  • More Capacity: Improvements to track, signals, power and stations will make it possible for fleet to move through the system faster and more reliably.
  • More Fleet: A larger fleet of accessible subway cars, buses, Wheel-Trans vehicles and streetcars deliver the benefit of increased capacity to move more customers per hour.
  • More Maintenance & Storage: More garages, shops, carhouses and yards to maintain and store the larger fleet.

Benefits of Investing

  • More frequent service
  • Less crowding on key routes
  • Improved service reliability for customers
  • Reduction of 1.7 million tons of CO2

Risks of Not Investing

  • Less frequent service and a decrease in reliability
  • More breakdowns of aging fleet, resulting in higher maintenance costs
  • More delays, poor customer service and extreme overcrowding
  • Continued pollution and failure to meet climate targets

Over the next 15 years, the TTC needs to invest $33.5 billion in infrastructure for subways, buses, stations, streetcars and Wheel-Trans while making safety and security, accessibility and sustainability top priorities. Seventy percent of the TTC’s Capital Investment Plan is currently unfunded.

Subway Line 1

Investment Summary

Required Investment Outlook 2019-2033

Key Investments

  • Complete installation of Automatic Train Control (ATC)
  • Purchase 44 new subway trains – a 50% increase in the size of the Line 1 fleet
  • Upgrade traction power to support more trains running on the line
  • Build a new train yard and repair and maintain facility in the north end to accommodate larger fleet

Subway Line 2

Investment Summary

Required Investment Outlook 2019-2033

Key Investments

  • Upgrade tracks and infrastructure to support continued operation
  • Overhaul 30-year-old trains to extend their useful life by another ten years
  • Construct new Western train yard for storage and maintenance of the larger fleet of Line 2 cars

Stations: Investment Summary

Required Investment Outlook 2019-2033

Key Investments

  • Expand Bloor-Yonge Station, including building a second platform for Line 2, to increase capacity system-wide
  • Improvements at most stations, including state-of-good-repair, passenger flow improvements, and escalator and elevator repair and replacement
  • Consider installing platform edge doors (PEDs) on Line 1 and 2 as possible
  • Complete Easier Access program, making all stations accessible by 2025

Buses: Investment Summary

Required Investment Outlook 2019-2033

Key Investments

  • 120 – 160 buses required each year to maintain current service; currently no funding beyond 2022
  • Purchase of 2,400 new low / zero emissions buses to reduce CO2 emissions by 1.7 million tons
  • Complete construction of McNicoll Garage and Ninth Bus Garage, which will include charging and storage facilities for electric vehicles

Streetcars: Investment Summary

Required Investment Outlook 2019-2033

Key Investments

  • Complete purchase of 204 streetcars from Bombardier
  • Up to 100 additional streetcars from 2025 to 2028 to accommodate ridership growth
  • Consider converting Hillcrest Complex to a streetcar-only maintenance and storage facility – a five-fold increase in capacity to overhaul streetcars

Wheel-Trans: Investment Summary

Required Investment Outlook 2019-2033

Key Investments

  • Purchase 829 Wheel-Trans buses to replace buses at the end of their usual life and grow the operating fleet by nearly 60%
  • Wheel-Trans transformation includes a suite of investments required to make our system Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA)-compliant and enable the TTC Family of Services, including the creation of Access Hubs

Transit expansion projects are important infrastructure investments and planning for them needs to be integrated with the City’s broader objectives.

How does it work?

  • Transit planning in Toronto follows the Official Plan (OP), as required by the Planning Act. The OP’s transportation policies outline that the City must:
  • Maintain the existing network (e.g., state of good repair);
  • Improve the existing network (e.g., introduce transit priority measures); and
  • Expand new networks (e.g., add bike facilities or new transit lines).

How are transit projects identified and evaluated?

Our transit system is planned to support forecasted growth and city building objectives.

The City’s Rapid Transit Evaluation Framework criteria are used to evaluate how each transit project achieves the City’s Official Plan goals.

A network approach is needed to plan transit in the City. All projects have a key role to play in the network.

In 2016 City Council approved a transit network plan to:

  • Address the capacity constraints on the subway;
  • Support the growth and development of city building objectives; and
  • Provide rapid transit to underserved areas of the city.

The City has invested $224 million over the last several years on priority transit expansion projects. Projects are at varying stages of the approval process. Funding arrangements vary on a project-by-project basis.

On April 10, 2019 the Province of Ontario announced its transit expansion proposal, which includes:

  • Ontario Line
  • Three-stop Line 2 Eglinton Extension (L2EE)
  • Yonge Subway Extension (YSE)
  • Eglinton Crosstown West LRT

The City and TTC are currently assessing the Province’s proposal to:

  • Better understand the projects and how they will fit into the City’s transit network and existing policies and plans; and
  • Ensure that the proposal does not result in unreasonable delay to getting transit built to support the City’s growth.

Ontario-Toronto Terms of Reference

A review of roles and responsibilities between the City and Province is being undertaken to enable:

  • The accelerated implementation of priority expansion projects;
  • The integration of transit services across modes and agencies (e.g., TTC, Metrolinx and other 905 transit agencies);
  • The modernization and enhancement of the existing subway system, while ensuring the system is maintained in a state of good repair;
  • The continuity of safe, reliable service to all residents whom depend on it for mobility; and
  • A long-term sustainable, predictable, funding model for the existing transit system and future transit need.

The City and Province signed the Terms of Reference that lays out the process for this Transit Review on February 12, 2019.

Bill 107, the Getting Ontario Moving Act, and its regulation enables the Province to take a leadership role in the planning, development, and delivery of transit expansion projects in Toronto.

The Province has indicated they will introduce legislation in 2020 to upload the existing subway system.

City Council’s Resolution: Toronto City Council has passed resolutions that the:

City of Toronto should continue to own, operate and maintain the Toronto subway system and that transit within the City of Toronto should not be uploaded or otherwise transferred, in whole or in part, to the Province of Ontario.


In December 2018, City Council adopted a set of Guiding Principles to guide the Transit Review between the City and Province:


  • Accountability
  • Responsiveness to Community
  • Transparency

Policy and Operations:

  • Safety and Security of the System
  • Preserve Mobility Options and a Seamless Journey
  • Ensure Accessible Local Service
  • Alignment of Infrastructure Investments with the City’s Planning Objectives
  • Advance Priority Expansion Projects Underway


  • Financial Sustainability
  • Fair Allocation of Financial Obligations

These principles provide staff with a framework to evaluate impacts of the proposed changes to roles and responsibilities between the City and Province.

Later this year, we will:

  • Report to Council with a summary of feedback gathered;
  • Use your input to inform discussions with the Province about the long-term model for transit in Toronto;
  • Report to Council on our assessment of the Province’s transit expansion proposal; and
  • Work with the Province to ensure local input into their proposed transit expansion projects.

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