Directives sur les maladies transmissibles – Ressources à l’intention des garderies

Disease Signs and Symptoms Transmission Infectious Period Exclude?
Chickenpox (Varicella-Zoster virus) Generalized, itchy rash: Crops of small red spots turn into fluid-filled blisters that crust as they resolve. Other systemic symptoms such as fever. Airborne: Spreads easily from person-to-person through the air (coughing/sneezing).
ContactDirect contact with the fluid from the blisters or respiratory secretions.
1 to 2 days before the rash develops, until crusting of all lesions (usually 5 days). No – If child feels well enough to participate.
Norwalk (Norovirus) Sudden onset of watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps and nausea. Symptoms last from 24 to 60 hours. ContactDirect contact with bodily fluids (contaminated hand to mouth).
Indirect contact with contaminated food, water or other objects or surfaces contaminated with stool.
For duration of diarrhea. Yes -24 hrs symptom free
Or
48 hrs symptom free during an outbreak.
Measles (Tubeoloa, Red Measles, Morbillivirus) High fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes for 2 to 4 days before rash starts. Rash begins on face as small red spots, which enlarge and clump together and spreads down body. Airborne: Spread easily from person-to-person through the air (Highly contagious).
Contact: Direct contact with respiratory secretions of an infected person
3 to 5 days before onset of rash until 4 days after onset of rash. Yes – Until 4 days after beginning of rash and when the child is able to participate.
Mumps (Rubulavirus) Swollen and tender glands at the jaw line on one or both sides of the face. May include fever, malaise, headache, inflamed testes and respiratory symptoms (especially for children aged five and under.) Swollen and tender glands at the jaw line on one or both sides of the face. May include fever, malaise, headache, inflamed testes and respiratory symptoms (especially for children aged five and under.) 7 days before to 9 days after onset of swelling. Yes – Until 5 days after onset of parotid gland swelling.
Pertussis (Whooping Cough, Bordetella pertussis) Usually begins with runny nose and cough. Cough progressively becomes frequent and severe and may result in a high-pitch whoop sound. Loss of breath or vomiting after coughing bouts may occur. May last 6 to 10 weeks. Droplet: From coughs and sneezes of an infected person to a distance of < 2 meters. Highly infectious in the early stages of runny nose and cough to 3 weeks after onset of whooping cough (paroxysms), if not treated. Or after 5 days of treatment. Yes – Until 5 days of appropriate antibiotics have been completed. If untreated, until 21 days after onset of cough.
Rubella (German Measles, Rubivirus) Characterized by a red rash, low-grade fever and swelling of the glands in the neck and behind the ears. Usually uncomplicated illness in children. Droplet: From coughs and sneezes of an infected person to a distance of < 2 meters.
Contact: Direct contact with respiratory secretions of an infected person.
7 days before to 7 days after onset of rash. Yes -For 7 days after onset of rash.
Disease Signs and Symptoms Transmission Infectious Period Exclude?
Common Cold (Rhinoviruses) Runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, cough, fever, headache, decrease of appetite and lack of energy. Most colds last for 7 to 10 days. Droplet: From cough and sneeze of an infected person to a distance of < 2 meters.
Contact: Direct contact with respiratory secretions.
Indirect contactwith toys, other objects or surfaces contaminated with respiratory secretions.
Highest during the first 2 to 3 days of symptoms and until 7 to 10 days after onset of symptoms. No – If child feels well enough to participate.
Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease (nonpolio enteroviruses) Fever, loss of appetite, malaise, sore throat, small painful mouth ulcers and a rash (small red spots or blisters on hands, feet and in mouth) and headache. May last 7 to 10 days. Contact: Direct contact with stool, saliva, nose and throat secretions or fluid from the blisters of an infected person.
Indirect contactwith contaminated toys, objects or surfaces.
For duration of illness and up to several weeks after onset of illness. No – If child feels well enough to participate.
Impetigo (Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus) Cluster of red bumps or fluid-filled blisters, which may ooze a clear fluid or become covered by an itchy honey-coloured crust. Usually appears around a child’s mouth, nose or on exposed skin of the face or limbs. Contact: Direct contact with skin lesions.
Indirect contactwith contaminated bed linens or clothing.
From onset of rash until 1 day after start of treatment. Yes – Until 24 hours after treatment has been initiated. Lesions on exposed skin should be covered.
Fifth Disease (slapped cheek erythema infectiosum, Parvovirus B19) A very red rash on a child’s cheeks (slapped face appearance). A red, lace-like rash develops on torso and arms, then over the rest of the body. Rash may itch occasionally. May have low-grade fever, malaise, or a mild cold before rash starts. Rash may last 1 to 3 weeks. Contact: Direct contact with respiratory secretions. Several days before the appearance of the rash. Not infectious once rash appears. No – If child feels well enough to participate.
Conjuntivitis (Pink Eye, nontypable Haemophilus influenzae, S. pneumoniae, Viral adenoviruses) Purulent: Pink or red eyeballs, white or yellow discharge, matted or red eyelids and eye pain. Usually caused by a bacterial infection.
Non-Purulent: Pink or red eyeball, clear and watery discharge, mild or non pain. May be caused by virus or non-infectious condition.
Contact: Direct contact with eye secretions. Droplet:From coughs and sneezes of an infected person to a distance of < 2 meters. Bacterial:Infectious until 24 hours of appropriate antibiotic treatment. Viral: Infectious as long as there is eye discharge. Yes – Until assessed by their health care provider. For bacterial conjunctivitis exclude until 24 hours after appropriate antibiotics has started.
Ringworm, (Tinea Corpis, various types of fungi) Itchy, flaky ring-shaped rash, on face, trunk, limbs, scalp, groin or feet. Contact: Direct contact (skin-to-skin).
Indirect contact sharing combs, unwashed clothes, shower or pool surfaces and under fingernails from scratching. Can also be acquired from pets.
As long as rash is untreated or uncovered. Yes – Until the appropriate treatment has been started.
Scarlet Fever (Streptococcus pyogenes) Sore throat, fever, swollen tender neck glands with widespread bright red rash covering the entire body. Commonly seen on neck, chest, underarms, elbow, groin and inner thigh, tongue (strawberry tongue). Typically rash does not involve face, but there may be flushed checks. Rash feels like sandpaper. Contact: Direct contact with saliva. Droplet: From coughs and sneezes of an infected person to a distance of < 2 meters. Until 24 hours after appropriate antibiotic treatment started.

In untreated cases, 10 to 21 days.

Yes – Until 24 hours after treatment has started and the child is able to participate in activities.
Strep Throat (Streptococcus pyogenes) Sore throat, fever and swollen tender neck glands. Contact: Direct contact with saliva. Droplet: From coughs and sneezes of an infected person to a distance of < 2 meters. Until 24 hours after appropriate antibiotic treatment started.

In untreated cases, 10 to 21 days.

Yes – Until 24 hours after treatment has started and the child is able to participate in activities.
Critters Signs & Symptoms Transmission Infectious Period Exclude?
Head Lice (Pediculosis capitis) Itchy scalp, nits (whitish-grey egg shells) attached to hair shafts, live lice. Contact: Direct contacthead-to-head (live lice).
Indirect contact by sharing hats, hair brushes, headphones, etc.
While nits or lice are present. No – Children with head lice can attend school/day care and should be treated. Children should avoid close head-to-head contact.
Pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis, nematode, roundworm) Itching around the anus, disturbed sleep and irritability. Contact: Direct contact from fingers contaminated from scratching.
Indirect contact from contaminated bed linens, clothing, toys, etc.
Until treatment is completed. No – Re-infection from contaminated hands is common, therefore reinforce hand washing.
Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei) Red, very itchy rash which usually appears between fingers, on palms, underarms, wrists, soles, elbows, head and neck. Itchiness is usually worse at night. Contact: Direct contact from person-to-person, prolonged, close and intimate skin-to-skin contact. Mites are almost invisible to the naked eye. Until treated, usually after 1 or 2 courses of treatment, a week apart. Yes – Exclude until after 24 hours of the first treatment given.