Last updated: January 24, 2023
Everyone has a role to play to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and respiratory viruses (such as the flu). The actions you take will protect you, loved ones and those most vulnerable in our community.
We can layer our protection against COVID-19 and respiratory viruses with some simple steps:
Learn more on how you can reduce virus spread when caring for someone or a child who has COVID-19 or another respiratory virus.
COVID-19 & respiratory viruses are spread by:
Using layers of protection can prevent the spread of COVID-19 and respiratory viruses and help keep everyone safe.
When people gather together indoors, respiratory infections, such as COVID-19 and the flu, can spread more easily. There are a number of things you can do to improve indoor air quality and help reduce the spread.
Try the CDC’s interactive home ventilation tool to see how respiratory particles in the air change with different ventilation settings in your home.
Some sectors or settings may require more technical, specific or specialized ventilation measures. For more information, visit:
COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses are spread mainly from person-to-person through respiratory droplets that can travel up to two metres. Keeping a physical distance from others, where possible, is an extra measure that can be taken to reduce the risk of respiratory illnesses, especially for those at greater risk of serious illness.
Here are some ways to practice physical distancing:
It is strongly recommended to wear a well-fitting, high quality mask in all indoor public settings, including in schools and childcare settings. Wearing a mask, in addition to physical distancing, reducing your contacts, getting vaccinated and other public health measures, can reduce the spread of these viruses and is an important measure we can use to protect ourselves and one another. Masking continues to be an important layer of protection to keep you, your loved ones, and the most vulnerable in our community safe.
It is strongly recommended to wear a mask in all indoor public settings, including schools and childcare settings. Masks can be considered:
Masks may still be expected in certain situations:
Check with individual organizations to learn more about their specific policies.
A medical mask, respirator or properly fitted 3-layer cloth mask is recommended for anyone who:
Some people who are deaf, deafened or hard of hearing may remove their mask, or may ask others to remove their mask, because they rely on facial movements and/or lip-reading to communicate. See tips for communicating with people who are deaf, deafened or hard of hearing.
Visit the Government of Canada website for information about mask use.
Learn more about practising good hand hygiene.
There is no evidence that COVID-19 is spread by food or food packaging. Learn more about COVID-19 and food safety.
Most regular household cleaners are effective against COVID-19 and its variants. If surfaces are visibly dirty, first use a cleaner, such as soap and water, then apply a disinfectant to kill the germs and viruses that remain. Leave the disinfecting solution to dry for it to work. You can choose a product that cleans and disinfects. Read the label to find a product that does both. Always follow the product instructions.
Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces such as door handles, countertops, tables, light switches, faucets, sinks, toilets, etc. to reduce the spread of germs and viruses.
Electronic devices such as cell phones, tablets, keyboards and remote controls are the most forgotten surfaces. Use disinfectant wipes that are appropriate for electronics. If there is no manufacturer instructions, use 70 per cent alcohol-based wipes.
For soft surfaces such as clothing and drapes, launder according to the label. It is safe to wash laundry from a person who is sick with other items. Use regular laundry detergent and the warmest appropriate temperature setting. Dry items completely in the dryer, if possible.
Caution: Always read the label and follow product instructions. Use a product approved in Canada (look for a DIN number). Do not mix chemicals. Wear protective gloves/eyewear and open windows for good ventilation. Never use products on your skin or food, as this can cause serious harm. Store chemicals out of reach of children and pets.
For more information, visit Public Health Ontario: Cleaning and Disinfection for Public Settings.
You can safely perform CPR during COVID-19 and reduce the spread of the virus by following these hands-only CPR guidelines, which were developed by Toronto Paramedic Services.