Report your 2022 LDD Moth (European Gypsy Moth) caterpillar and moth sightings using this interactive reporting tool.
Fall/Winter of 2021 into 2022: City staff are undertaking egg mass surveys to help forecast the 2022 infestation. Results and recommendations will be posted in early 2022.
The LDD Moth (Lymantria dispar dispar), formerly known as European Gypsy Moth, is a non-native defoliating insect that feeds on a variety of tree species found in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and throughout North America. The City of Toronto’s management program focuses on controlling outbreak levels of LDD moth in areas with trees that are at risk of defoliation, typically oak dominant communities. Since LDD moth is firmly established in Toronto and North America, the complete removal of these insects is no longer a possibility.

Help manage LDD moth by following these Integrated Pest Management Strategy techniques.

Report an LDD Moth Sighting

Toronto residents are encouraged to report any sightings of LDD Moth through the City’s online reporting tool. The input from residents reporting the presence of this insect is important in coordinating monitoring efforts across the City.

311 can assist residents with submitting a report using the reporting tool. When calling 311, please be prepared to give the exact address of the LDD moth sighting to submit a report through the tool.

City staff will use the information collected to determine the level of the infestation in specific areas by conducting egg mass surveys during the fall and winter seasons.

August to May: Egg Mass Removal

Survey your property for egg masses and scrape them off surfaces into soapy water to destroy them.

Required Supplies

  • A flat object such as a butter knife or plastic paint scraper
  • Catchment container or bag to collect the egg masses
  • Bucket of soapy water. Dish soap works well

Step-by-Step Instructions

  1. Place your catchment container below the egg mass
  2. Use your scraper tool to remove the egg mass from the surface. Ensure that all eggs are scraped. Try not to leave any residual eggs in bark ridges or crevices
  3. Empty the contents of your catchment container or bag into a bucket of soapy water
  4. Leave the eggs sitting in the bucket for a day or two, then dispose of the contents in the garbage. Don’t scrape egg masses onto the ground; this does not necessarily kill the eggs and some may still hatch next spring

Egg masses can be located high up in trees. Be safe if trying to access anything up high, especially if using ladders. Some private tree care companies can be hired to provide this service at heights.


Late May to Early June: Btk Application

For severe infestations, apply a product that contains Btk to foliage at the early stage of caterpillar development when caterpillars just begin feeding. This is usually around mid-May. The pesticide must be ingested by the caterpillar to be effective.

For small trees and shrubs that you can reach, products like Safer® Brand Caterpillar Killer can be purchased at local garden supply stores.

For larger trees, it is recommended that you consult with a private arborist.

May to July: Hand Pick Caterpillars

Handpicking caterpillars is most effective on small newly planted trees, shrubs, and plants infested with LDD moth. If possible, gently shake the tree so caterpillars fall from leaves. Thoroughly inspect the remaining foliage, branches, and trunk for caterpillars and using gloves, pick them off your tree. Fallen and collected caterpillars should be placed and left to soak in soapy water to destroy them.

May to September: Burlap Banding

Once LDD Moth caterpillars grow to about an inch (2.5 cm) in length by mid-June, they will move down the trunk to seek shelter from predators and heat. Reduce the number of caterpillars on the trees in your yard by trapping them.

Required Supplies

  • Burlap cloth
  • Twine or rope
  • Bucket of soapy water. Dish soap works well

Step-by-Step Instructions

  1. Wrap and secure a piece of burlap cloth around the stem/trunk of your tree
  2. Tie twine or rope around the center or slightly below the center of the burlap
  3. Drape the burlap cloth over the twine or rope so there is an overhang where the caterpillars can crawl underneath to seek shelter during the day
  4. Check the trap by lifting the overhanging burlap cloth every afternoon and collect any hiding caterpillars
  5. Put them into a bucket of soapy water for a few days to destroy them


Year-Round: Consult with a Professional

Consult an arborist for treatment options or contact your local garden supply store for the availability of materials.

Since the summer 2021, defoliation and egg mass surveys were conducted in parts of the city with historic infestations, in areas identified with moderate to severe defoliation, and in new areas where residents have reported LDD moth sightings. These surveys are used to delineate the infested areas and to forecast population levels, to determine the best Integrated Pest Management (IPM) control measures for 2022.

The surveys completed in November 2021, demonstrated that the LDD moth population in 2022 is forecasted to be high in specific parts of the city. City staff are currently working on recommendations for the LDD management program, to be approved by City Council in early 2022.

Residents are encouraged to review the What You Can Do section to learn how to complement the City’s efforts to protect the tree canopy from LDD moth damage on their private property.

The LDD moth is an invasive insect from Europe that was accidentally introduced in North America in the 1860s during an attempt to rear an alternative silk-producing insect. LDD moth caterpillars are 5 to 60 millimetres in length, dark and hairy, with five pairs of blue dots and six pairs of red dots on the back. They feed on a wide range of hardwood trees, as well as evergreen trees, but show a preference to oak trees.

Distribution in Canada

LDD moth is established in the northeastern U.S.A. and in regions of the eastern Canadian provinces. The spread of LDD moth across North America is attributed to the movement of the insect via infested wood or hitchhiking on vehicles. Public awareness could significantly reduce and limit the spread of LDD moth to new areas.

The Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) of Ontario will display the current range of the LDD Moth.

Tree Damage

The LDD moth caterpillar is known to feed on most species hardwood trees with the exception of ash, tulip-tree, American sycamore, London plane, catalpa, fir and cedar. Most healthy trees can withstand one to several years of severe defoliation by LDD moth. Under normal circumstances, defoliated trees should regrow their leaves by the end of July, depending on the weather conditions during the season.

A spruce tree with a significant amount of brown needles.
An infested spruce tree.
The top branches of an oak tree, completely stripped of all leaves
A severely defoliated oak tree.

Oak species, particularly white oaks, and Colorado spruce are very vulnerable to LDD moth feeding and can be killed in one season when a significant proportion of the foliage is consumed. Severe loss of leaves or needles can also stress trees and make them more susceptible to further harm from other insectsdiseases and weather fluctuations. Evergreen species of trees, for example blue spruce and white pine, are particularly vulnerable once large portions of their needles are consumed by LDD caterpillars, they generally do not recover.

LDD Moth’s Natural Predators

LDD moths have three significant natural enemies:

  • a fungus (Entomophaga maimaiga)
  • a virus (Nucelopolyhedrosis)
  • a small wasp (Encyrtidae family)

The fungus and virus can be very effective at naturally controlling populations, however, they require a cool wet spring to be effective. The wasp can parasitize up to 30% of the eggs that are near the surface of an egg mass, but cannot reach the eggs in the center of the mass.

An emaciated EGM caterpillar.
Entomophaga is a fungus that infects LDD moth caterpillars. It requires a cool, wet spring.
A EGM caterpillar hangs limp from a tree.
The virus Nucelopolyhedrosis kills LDD moth caterpillars but requires a cool, wet spring.
Parasitic wasps on an EGM egg mass.
Parasitic wasps eat eggs on the outer edge of egg masses, but the inner eggs remain untouched.

A circle indicating the LDD moth's lifestyle, with shading that indicates the length of time spent in one stage. There are images of the insect at these stages, as well as text explaining them briefly. This textual information is available in full following this image.

LDD moth has four distinct developmental stages:

  1. egg
  2. caterpillar
  3. cocoon
  4. moth


  • Late August to early May
  • Stage lasts eight months
  • Dormant, over-wintering stage

Egg masses remain secured to surfaces such as tree bark, outdoor furniture, landscape stones and vehicles and hatch to coincide with the warm weather and the opening of tree buds. Egg masses range in size from 2-8 cm long and can contain between 100-1000 eggs.

Clumps of egg masses on a tree.
An egg mass on a tree.


  • Early May to mid-July
  • Stage lasts 40 days
  • Tree-damaging stage

Newly hatched caterpillars are about half a centimetre long and dark in colour. The tiny caterpillars begin the climb up to the tree canopy, though if it is rainy they may stay put for several days. The caterpillar will either begin to feed on the newly flushed leaves or travel to a nearby tree though a method called “ballooning”, where they dangle from long silken threads at the end of branches and are carried away by the breeze. While their light bodies can travel several kilometres, they will typically be carried to the tree right next to them.

LDD moth caterpillars grow and change in appearance over the span of one to two months. As they grow, they moult or shed their skin. By the fourth moult, the pairs of characteristic blue and red dots are visible on their back.

A single caterpillar can eat an average of one square meter of foliage. They continue to feed, moult, and feed until they are about six to seven centimetres long. Once they’ve finished feeding, they seek shelter to cocoon.

Small caterpillars, newly hatched, on a tree.
Newly hatched LDD moth caterpillars.
An older caterpillar showing characteristic spots, resting on a severely defoliated leaf
An older caterpillar, showing characteristic spots, eating a leaf.


  • Mid-July to early August
  • Stage lasts 10 to 14 days
  • Transformation stage

After the adult moth emerges, it leaves the empty cocoon behind. The female cocoon is larger than the male cocoon.

A gypsy moth cocoon against a severely damaged leaf.
The LDD moth cocoon stage.


  • Late July to mid and late August
  • Stage lasts 10 days
  • Reproductive stage

An adult LDD moth’s only function is to reproduce. Unlike other species of butterflies and moths, adult LDD moths do not eat anything. The female is larger than the male and is cream coloured. The female moths cannot fly. Instead, she uses pheromones to attract male moths. Male moths are smaller and brown in colour.

A brown male moth is smaller than the cream-coloured female.
Adult male, bottom left, and adult female, upper right.


LDD moth outbreaks may appear suddenly and may continue for two to five years in any one location. Natural control factors such as disease, parasites and predators eventually combine to cause a collapse of these outbreaks. Consecutive years of LDD moth at outbreak levels can cause severe defoliation which can lead to tree mortality and intervention may be required.

The LDD moth management program aims to control outbreak levels of LDD moth in areas with trees that are potentially at risk of severe defoliation or mortality if no action is taken. Eradication of LDD moth is not a realistic management objective since it is well established throughout North America.

To help manage infestations, the City will continue to use the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Strategy. IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical controls in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks.

IPM aims to suppress pest populations to an acceptable level or threshold.

Fall and Winter

LDD Moth Egg Mass Surveys

City staff conduct egg mass surveys in residential neighbourhoods, parks and natural areas to identify areas infested with LDD moth. Surveys are typically conducted in parts of the city with historic LDD moth infestations and in new areas where residents have reported LDD moth sightings. These surveys allow City staff to delineate the infested areas and to forecast LDD moth population levels for the following spring. City tree(s) with high numbers of egg masses that are at risk of being defoliated are candidates for treatment.

Winter and Spring

The City will prescribe different types of treatments depending on the infestation level, tree species, size of the tree, and its location. Each treatment has limitations, so a combination of control measures is essential for a successful control program. Treatments are to reduce the LDD moth’s population levels and to prevent severe canopy damage from occurring and tree mortality.

Egg mass removal

The physical removal of egg masses is an effective method of control for small to medium-sized, low-risk tree species, such as Norway maple, linden and honey locust, located on residential streets or City parks. City staff are equipped with vacuums attached to extension poles that are used to remove and collect the egg masses off of the tree. Egg masses collected this way are destroyed off-site to ensure they no longer pose a threat.

A worker on the ground holds a long tube to a high tree branch
Vacuuming egg masses from a high branch.

TreeAzin Injections

TreeAzin is a botanical injectable pesticide formulated with an extract of neem tree seeds that provides a treated tree with protection from LDD moth feeding for one season. When a caterpillar eats the leaves of a treated tree, the pesticide kills the insect by preventing it from growing any larger. This limits the amount of damage to the tree. High-risk trees – trees that are predicted to be severely defoliated – are generally selected for this treatment. The timing of treatments is essential for successful control.

The base of a tree has a number of white cylinders sticking out of it
TreeAzin injection capsules sticking out of the base of a tree.

Ground Sprays of Btk

The City uses products that contain the active ingredient Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki (Btk). This is a naturally occurring bacteria found in soil that can be sprayed onto the foliage of individual trees for LDD moth control. Ground spraying for LDD moth is a control often used in City parks to treat spruce trees since other methods have proven to be unsuccessful. The timing of these applications is extremely time sensitive as there is a very narrow treatment window for Btk applications. Because of this, the number of trees selected for this method of treatment is limited.

A worker sprays a long jet of pesticide into a tree
City staff applying a ground spray to a tree.

Aerial Spray Program

The City plans aerial spray programs when LDD moth outbreaks are severe and widespread across large areas of dense high-risk tree canopies, usually oak-dominated. Aerial sprays are only conducted when there is no other Integrated Pest Management control option available that would reduce the populations significantly enough to meet acceptable thresholds.

Early Summer

Post-treatment defoliation surveys

During the months following the treatments, City staff conduct post-treatment monitoring surveys to assess the level of feeding on treated trees/areas. Treated trees are inspected for signs and levels of feeding activity and caterpillar abundance. These areas are later re-inspected in the fall/winter to assess for egg masses that were laid during the late summer. The goal of the treatment program is to protect individual or groups of trees from damaging levels of defoliation and to reduce LDD moth population levels. Low to moderate levels of feeding – small holes in leaves – and the presence of caterpillars can still be expected following treatments as it is impossible to completely eliminate the insect.

Late Summer

Pheromone trapping

The City deploys LDD moth traps across parts of the City where LDD moth is present. Though they are commercially marketed as a control method for this insect, these traps are a population monitoring tool, not a control measure. The traps are baited with a sex pheromone that is effective in attracting male moths. Traps are hung in the lower canopy of trees in the summer, before the expected flight period in late July through August. Once the moths have died off for the season, the traps are collected and the number of moths counted. The data collected from these traps is used to establish further monitoring and treatment efforts.

A pheromone trap hangs in a tree. It has a white base and a green lid.
An LDD moth pheromone trap hanging in a tree.


Parasitism surveys

Parasitism is one of the greatest factors that contribute to the natural collapse of LDD moth populations. Since LDD moth has natural enemies that affect the insect at each stage of development, City staff monitor the level of parasitism throughout its life cycle. City staff monitor the location, prevalence and severity of parasitism in areas of the city to help predict LDD moth population levels the following spring.

The City sprays for LDD moth when populations rise to levels that could have devastating effects on Toronto’s tree canopy. Aerial spraying has proven in the past to be very effective in lowering LDD moth populations over large areas.

Depending on the levels of LDD moth, an annual aerial spray may or may not take place.

A helicopter flies through the sky, dispersing Btk in four white streams.
A helicopter disperses Btk, a natural pesticide.

Spray Areas

The need for an aerial spray is determined after City staff finish extensive egg mass surveying.

The area(s) scheduled for spraying are those where there is no other Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Strategy control option available that would reduce LDD moth populations to meet acceptable levels. Areas predicted for severe defoliation, typically with a high density of oak species, are considered priority areas for aerial spraying. Spray zones are refined using extensive field data.


The City of Toronto uses a product that contains Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki (Btk). The product is registered under the trade name Foray® 48B. Btk is a naturally occurring bacteria found in soil and is not a chemical. The same product has been successfully used by the City of Toronto in previous years to control LDD moth populations. The Cities of Mississauga, Oakville, Burlington and Hamilton have completed similar spray programs in the past.

Btk is very specific and only activates in insect stomachs with low/no acid (alkaline environments). It produces a toxic protein that breaks down stomach walls. The insect usually dies within two to five days. Btk:

  • does not affect adult moths and butterflies – it only affects newly hatched caterpillars feeding on plant material at the time the spray is used
  • does not affect other insects, honeybees, fish, birds, or mammals
  • does not work in the stomach acid of human and other animals

Btk has been used in many countries around the world, without health impacts on individuals on medications or vulnerable populations. It has been extensively studied by Health Canada and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Research shows that Btk poses minimal risk to human health when used as directed and has been approved by Health Canada for aerial use over urban areas.

Prepare for an Aerial Spray

Residents are unlikely to experience any health effects, and no special precautions are required. People who have concerns can take reasonable precautions to avoid exposure during an aerial spray.

  • Try to remain indoors for 30 minutes after spraying to allow for the droplets to settle on tree leaves
  • Bring laundry, toys and pets indoors before spraying starts
  • Practice good personal and food hygiene
    • Wash hands after outdoor activities, especially after gardening;
    • Leave outdoor shoes at the door
    • Wash all fruits and vegetables before eating or cooking
  • Cover lawn furniture, outdoor tables, pools, BBQs, play equipment and sandboxes and/or rinse them off with water after spraying is finished
  • Minimize opening and closing windows and doors during the spraying
  • Shut off the heating/cooling vents or select the recirculate setting
  • Discuss concerns with your family physician

Measuring Success

In the months following the spray, City staff conduct post-treatment monitoring surveys to assess the level of feeding in the treated area(s). A spray is considered a success when tree canopies appear lush and green and the majority of leaves are intact. Small signs of feeding, like holes in leaves, and the presence of caterpillars can still be expected following a spray since Btk may not reach small trees and shrubs located directly underneath large trees.

Egg mass surveys are also conducted within the spray area(s) in the fall/winter months to help determine if there may be a residual population in the following spring that would require further control.

The top of a tree before aerial spraying with Btk. There are no leaves on the branches.
The top of an untreated tree during an LDD moth outbreak.
The top of a tree after aerial spraying with Btk. There are many leaves on the branches. This is the same tree as the one preceding it.
The top of a treated tree during an LDD moth outbreak.