The Toronto Island Park Master Plan is being co-created with Indigenous rights holders, local stakeholders and the general public. The ideas, thoughts and other feedback we receive during the engagement process feeds directly into the planning process and helps to shape the Master Plan.
This page documents progress on the Master Plan and includes engagement summaries, reports and other updates on the project. The information shared is not final and will be updated as we continue to receive feedback.
Follow our progress as we build the Toronto Island Park Master Plan together.
While we aim to provide fully accessible content, there is no text alternative available for some of the content on this site. If you require alternate formats or need assistance understanding our maps, drawings, or any other content, please contact the project engagement team at 647-427–5331.
The existing space used for events at Hanlan’s Point consists of an open lawn area that has been permitted over the last 15 years for a wide range of events, from running races and charity fundraisers to larger music events, like Electric Island. The idea to improve or formalize this space in the Master Plan came through community and stakeholder engagement with both the public as well as staff and event organizers and was intended to balance and improve existing uses and visitor experience with impacts to the environment and adjacent habitat areas, programs and uses.
The draft Master Plan included a demonstration plan of what improving or formalizing this event space might look like by shaping the lawn into a naturalized amphitheatre, framing the space with additional trees and providing access to power so that generators, fuel trucks and temporary infrastructure don’t have to be transported to/from the Island for every event. No physical structures were ever proposed and the images presented were for illustrative purposes only and did not represent an actual design.
In response to community concerns about this proposal, the City held a virtual public meeting on Thursday, February 23rd attended by as many as 300 people and launched a virtual conversation through ThoughtExchange, which over 2,000 people have participated in so far. The community’s response has been overwhelming in its opposition to the proposed event space. In addition, we have heard that:
As a result of this feedback, the Master Plan team announced at a community workshop held on February 27th at the 519 that it would be removing the recommendation related to a permanent event space at Hanlan’s from the Master Plan. This means that the status quo will continue, meaning events already scheduled for this year will proceed. Over the next year or so, the City commits to engaging Hanlan’s users and the wider Island community on an Events Strategy for Toronto Island Park, which will identify the preferred types and sizes of events that are appropriate for the Island and are in alignment with the Vision, Values, Guiding Principles and key recommendations that have been established by the Toronto Island Master Plan.
Moving forward, the Toronto Island Master Plan will also include a new lens, currently called “Centering Queer Heritage, History and Community-Well Being”, which will recognize the importance of Hanlan’s to the queer community and identify actions to prioritize and support community safety, which might include directions related to future work (for example, documenting the cultural heritage significance of the Island – and Hanlan’s in particular – to the 2SLGBTQ+ community in Toronto and beyond).
Presentations and summary reports from all public engagement opportunities will be posted here in reverse chronological order.
On February 23, 2023, a virtual meeting was held to address concerns regarding the Toronto Island Park Master Plan and ideas proposed for Hanlan’s Point, including those related to the proposed event space.
On Wednesday, November 30, 2022, from 5:30 to 8:00 pm, the City hosted an open house at Canoe Landing Community Recreation Centre. Over 80 community members attended, including some members of the project’s Community Advisory Committee and the Ward 10 – Spadina–Fort York City Councillor.
Download the meeting summary.
Download information panels:
On August 13, 2022, the project team held a series of pop-ups across seven locations on the Island to share information and key ideas about the Master Plan. Each location focused on different topics and ideas related to different areas of the Island, including Indigenous placekeeping, Island transportation, Environmentally Sensitive Areas, wayfinding and others.
On March 1, a virtual open house was conducted using a drop-in format. Participants were able to download materials ahead of time and look through the proposed ideas and actions in the Preliminary Demonstration Plan before joining breakout rooms to chat with the project team.
Download the main open house presentation.
Each room shared ideas from one of five themes:
From March 3 to 24, 2022, the project team hosted a series of Deep Dive workshops with the goal of going into further detail on specific topics from the Preliminary Demonstration Plan. The deep dives were split into the following themes:
Download the Deep Dive summary.
On Wednesday, February 16, 2022, the project team hosted the third CAC meeting. Representatives from approximately 20 on-island and community organizations, waterfront organizations, and city-wide organizations participated. The purpose of this meeting was to share and discuss the Preliminary Toronto Island Park Demonstration Plan, including the proposed ideas and actions for each of the plan’s lenses.
Download the meeting summary.
On December 9, over 100 people joined the project’s second virtual forum event, Towards Belonging. The event invited community and thought leaders, artists and experts to discuss the concept of ‘belonging’ in public spaces and most importantly, how we might be able to embed this thinking into the Toronto Island Master Plan to create a park that is truly open, accessible and welcoming of all.
On November 19, the City of Toronto hosted a Placekeeping Dialogue with the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation for the Toronto Islands Park Master Plan. The meeting included participants from the MCFN Culture and Events Staff as well as Michi Saagiig Elders and knowledge holders. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a visual overview of the park, present the placekeeping ideas within the context of the existing park spaces and seek input and feedback on these ideas. The meeting was held in lieu of an in-person park visit, which has been tentatively postponed to the Spring of 2022 due to ongoing concerns with the Covid-19 pandemic.
From October 20 to December 6, 202, the project team hosted 12 dialogues with key communities, City staff and Island stakeholders to present emerging ideas. The goal of these meetings was to vet ideas, ensure ideas align with other initiatives and strategies, and overall ensuring the project is on the right track. Conversations included:
On September 28, the project team met with the City’s Disability Steering Committee for a project update and to workshop some emerging ideas around accessibility. Some of the themes discussed included: wayfinding and information, accessible pathways, staff support, sensory considerations and water/beach access.
Over 150 young people from across Toronto were engaged through a series of in-person and online pop-up events designed and led by the Toronto Island Master Plan Youth Ambassador team. The team of 10 Ambassadors ranged in age from 15 – 27 and collectively spoke nine different languages. The team worked together throughout the summer to design and deliver events that engaged their peers and communities in the Toronto Island Master Plan’s Big Ideas.
Download the summary report.
This survey specifically focused on current offerings at the Island including transportation, food and attractions, and what amenities and experiences park visitors would like to have access to in the future. The survey was open from August 4th to the 16th and received 1500 responses.
A summary report will be posted here once it is available.
Over 100 people attended the second virtual public workshop to provide feedback on the proposed Big Ideas gathered during Phase 1 of public engagement. This event included an overview about the Master Plan, an update on Phase 1 outcomes, and a presentation on the proposed Big Ideas. Discussions focussed on four main themes: Environment; Visitor Experience; Diversity, Equity and Inclusion; and History, Culture and Storytelling.
Download the Big Ideas Public Workshop Summary Report.
For their second meeting, the CAC was joined by the City’s Technical Advisory Committee to discuss and co-develop the Big Ideas the emerged from Phase 1 of the public engagement process. In joining the two committees for this meeting, the goal was to have City staff collaborate with members of the public in vetting the Big Ideas and provide valuable insight on feasibility.
Download the July 2021 Community Advisory Committee:
Through a City of Toronto digital platform, we invited members of the public to review, rate, and comment on preliminary Big Ideas from the Master Plan as well as to submit Big Ideas they thought would bring our collective vision to life. In total we collected over 140 ideas, 75,000 ratings and 900 comments were received from May 27 to June 20, 2021
Download the Big Ideas Summary Report.
Phase 1: Towards a Vision focused on developing a collective vision, values and guiding principles to guide the development of the Toronto Island Master Plan. The What We Heard Summary Report consolidates insights and outcomes from all engagement activities and tools conducted in this phase.
Download the What We Heard: Phase 1 Summary Report.
Over 300 people joined the virtual Indigenous Placekeeping Forum to listen and learn about Indigenous placekeeping. The event included an opening invocation, an Elders and knowledge-holders panel and presentations on perspectives on Indigenous placekeeping.
Indigenous placekeeping is an approach to design which recognizes the land as a living being first and considers our responsibilities now and in the future. Indigenous placekeeping thinks beyond our immediate benefits and defines our relationship with all living things and how they work together. Indigenous placekeeping is being considered in the Master Plan process.
The online Visioning Survey asked participants to provide insights on their Toronto Island Park experiences (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and how they would like to experience it in the future. Over 5,000 responses were received.
Download the Survey Summary Report.
An Interactive Map on Social Pinpoint allowed participants to share their experiences and ideas and rate what others have said. The online map was visited by over 4,000 people and received approximately 800 comments and thousands of data points.
Download the Social Pinpoint Synthesis Report.
Participants who preferred to engage offline were able to download or receive a printed engagement toolkit and prepaid return envelope.
A summary report will be posted once it is available.
The City hosted a virtual Public Visioning Workshop to invite participants to explore what the future of Toronto Island Park could look like. The event included an overview of the Toronto Island Park Master Plan process, preliminary outcomes from pre-engagement, project updates from the City’s staff and DTAH (landscape architect for the Toronto Island Park Master Plan), and a question-and-answer session followed by interactive discussions.
Download the Public Visioning Workshop summary report.
The project team held a series of workshops with specific Indigenous communities, including women, youth and Two Spirit people. During these focus groups, participants shared their thoughts, ideas, vision and priorities for the Toronto Islands.
Download the Indigenous Engagement Summary Report.
The City and community and Indigenous partners formally launched the Toronto Island Park Master Plan and public engagement process in a virtual Launch Ceremony. Over 250 people tuned in to watch an invocation and blessing by a Mississauga Elder, hear from City and Indigenous leaders and learn about the Toronto Island Park Master Plan.
Participants at the IPAC meeting shared their thoughts, ideas, vision and priorities for the Toronto Islands. The IPAC is convened by the City’s Indigenous Affairs Office and comprises of 10-15 fifteen individuals representing a range of Indigenous organizations and perspectives.
Participants at the first MCFN meeting shared their thoughts, ideas, vision and priorities for the Toronto Islands. The meeting was attended by representatives of the MCFN, Elders, knowledge keepers and others who represent the Michi Saagiig perspective.
Participants at the first CAC meeting shared their thoughts, ideas, vision and priorities for the Toronto Islands. The CAC comprises of waterfront-based, city-wide, and Indigenous communities that have a mandate or interest that connects to the Toronto Island Master Plan.
Download the February 2021 Community Advisory Committee Meeting Summary.
The City hosted several pre-engagement focus groups and interviews with Indigenous audiences (including rights holders and urban Indigenous organizations), community-based audiences (organizations with an interest or mandate related to the Master Plan) and internal City divisions and extended Partners. The pre-engagement meetings were set up to introduce the project and to explore how participants wanted to be engaged in the Master Plan process. In addition, the purpose of these meetings was to get a preliminary understanding of the issues, existing conditions and opportunities on Toronto Island.
Download the Pre-Engagement Summary Report.
There are three key components that make up the Master Plan:
A Master Plan does not get implemented all at once; it guides decision-making in the park over many years. In other words, as priorities are established and if funding becomes available and is approved for specific projects to proceed, additional design studies will be completed that will include separate and project-specific engagement processes before implementation occurs.
The Toronto Island Park Master Plan will:
A Driver of Change is a challenge or opportunity that is driving the need to improve Toronto Island Park. They are the reasons why the Master Plan is needed.
The following challenges and opportunities have been identified and drive the need for the development of a comprehensive and strategic plan for Toronto Island Park:
Since time immemorial, the Island has been a place of escape, respite and healing. It is also a meeting place for family and friends that welcomes a wide range of visitors including the Indigenous community, newcomers and 2SLGBTQ+. Toronto Island is a one of a kind place and yet its natural character, rich and storied past and unique identity is largely unknown.
The Island is an important Indigenous place, and has been for millennia. For the Michi Saagiig, it was simply known as Mnisiing, meaning “on the islands.” Later, they were collectively known as Aiionwatha or Hiawatha’s Island. It has also been long considered as a meeting place and a place of healing and ceremony for Indigenous people. This rich history and living culture is not reflected in Toronto Island Park as it exists today.
The Island is a place rich in cultural and natural heritage. It includes several significant ecosystems that contribute not only to local ecological processes, health and function, but also form part of larger important regional systems, including being a part of migratory bird flyways. The diverse and complex history of human use and interaction within the Island’s natural and built spaces and its value as a refuge and escape for many underserved communities are also unshared are not well known. Many people are unaware of the origins of the Island’s natural land form and significance as a defining feature for the inner harbour and the role this played in the establishment of Toronto as a settlement, and the city that we know today.
Toronto Island is a special place that offers a different experience to everyone that visits or lives there. People come to Toronto Island for many different reasons, for example: hiking, biking, picnicking, spending time at Centreville, participating in events and celebrations, boating, paddling the internal waterways or spending a lazy afternoon at the beach. Many people simply visit to escape the city, recharge, and connect with nature. The visitor experience has untapped potential and room for improvement!
The Toronto Island is a dynamic place with many opportunities for small and large businesses to provide diverse and high-quality visitor experiences. These opportunities should be better coordinated island-wide to ensure Toronto Island Park reaches its full potential. Currently, there are gaps in commercial offerings and it is difficult for small and diverse suppliers to enter the Island’s market. These challenges also extend to customer service, commercial offerings, improving the operating environment and trying to reduce or remove some of the logistical challenges of running an on-island business. Current business operations on the Island need to be examined to ensure the City is doing all that it can to facilitate high-quality and diverse service offerings which respond to the needs of visitors during all seasons.
The Toronto Island should be a place for everyone, where there are limited or no obstacles or barriers when travelling to and getting around the Island. This includes accessing dock areas, ferries, buildings, and park amenities, as well as the Island attractions, beaches (including the water) and the many natural experiences the Islands have to offer.
The Toronto Islands originated as a sandbar and has evolved over time into the islands that make up the park we are familiar with today. The landform is vulnerable to the whims of mother-nature and the Island’s environment is constantly changing which presents ongoing operational, service delivery and management challenges that require continued investment.
Much of the Island’s infrastructure was installed decades ago and is aging and in various states of repair. In addition, environmental impacts from high lake effect, flooding and erosion have contributed to the decline of Island infrastructure. Despite ongoing capital investments and improvements to ensure the safety of the public and continued use of the park facilities and amenities, additional investments and updates are required. To ensure public safety and mitigate environmental impacts of flooding and erosion, a more strategic plan for coordinating these improvements is needed. This will help to ensure that the future function and sustainability of the park is maintained for future generations.
The population of downtown Toronto is growing at a pace that far exceeds the population growth for the city as a whole, with an estimated 10,000 residents added each year. According to the City’s new TOcore Downtown Secondary Plan, downtown could nearly double in size by 2041, and reach a population of 475,000. The TOcore Parks and Public Realm Plan has also identified that downtown Toronto is highly parkland deficient and has linked population growth with increased demand and use of parks. In response, the City’s Parkland Strategy has identified Guiding Principles to Expand, Improve, Connect and be more inclusive with our park system to respond to the city’s growth and to ensure our parks become more accessible, functional, connected and resilient. Toronto Island Park can help to achieve these goals for the benefit of the downtown core and the city overall.
The vision identifies the aspirations and speaks to the end goals of the Master Plan. It looks to the past for context and understanding, identifies a path forward, and also sits within the shared values of the project to reveal the outcomes and realization of this Master Plan.
The Park will be a place to:
The Toronto Islands have long been a place of rest and respite for all living beings. They have been a place of healing and escape for generations of humans and a home to many unique and significant natural habitats that are integral to the health and resilience of local and global natural systems.
As Toronto continues to grow and evolve, Toronto Island Park will be a place where dynamic natural environments and sensitive habitats are protected and supported through stewardship, education, and management that prioritizes ecological integrity and sustainability. It will be a safe place for community, where all are welcome and equitable access is central to the experience of the park for all living beings. It will be a place to seek refuge from urban life and stresses and experience the healing and restorative powers of being immersed within nature. It will be a park for generations to enjoy and experience through thoughtful management and understanding of the needs of all living beings that call this place home.
The Island has been a place of significance for various communities over generations. It has been a place to meet and gather, to celebrate what makes us unique and what we share. It has long stood as common ground where all who came here were visitors and shared what the islands could provide.
Toronto Island Park will be a place that embraces the sovereignty of the land, water and sky within the park as living beings and actively seeks to share the Indigenous significance through placekeeping, place-making, and place-revealing. It will be a place where diversity is celebrated and supported through sharing the identity, character, and legacy of the islands by uplifting and sharing different perspectives and revealing all the stories of the park, new and old. It will be a place of belonging that is inclusive and celebratory of Indigenous communities, Black communities, People of Colour, 2SLGBTQ+, women and gender non-conforming people, disabled people, children and youth, seniors, people experiencing poverty and all equity-deserving communities.
The dynamic nature of the Toronto Islands and the sand-swept landscape have always been a source of awe and wonder for visitors. The shifting forms and changing ecology created a place that was new and different each time one set foot on its shores. Its restorative character created ideal spaces for recreation and escape and the islands evolved into destinations for play and adventure.
Toronto Island Park will be a place that embraces the wonder and joy of the ever-changing landscape through a new understanding of play for all ages and abilities—over time and through all seasons. It will deliver experiences that are special to this place by acknowledging the uniqueness and dynamic character of the islands—past, present, and future. It will promote sharing, learning, and teaching through land-based practices, partnerships with diverse and under-represented voices, and programming that reflects the variety of lived experiences and worldviews that make up Toronto. It will ensure equitable access through accessible and affordable spaces, experiences, and connections that invite all to visit, experience and explore the natural and man-made wonders the park has to offer.
Through engagement and collaboration with rights holders, City staff, community representatives, and the general public, the following values were developed to guide the Master Plan process and recommendations.
Values are fundamental requirements for guiding the Master Plan. They are overarching ideals that are universally true, regardless of context or specific conditions. The values outlined here form the basis of the vision and guiding principles in support of the overall Master Plan. They also apply beyond the limits of this study and align with the City’s corporate and divisional strategic initiatives overall. Quite simply, the Toronto Island Park Master Plan must embody all of these values.
Respect for both people and nature by:
Diversity of cultures, practices and people as well as biodiversity by:
Balance between active and passive, local and visitor, long-term and short-lived by:
Accountability in process, practice and principles by:
Guiding principles are the rules for how the Master Plan should meet the objectives of the project and respond to the drivers identified at the outset of this study. These guiding principles are specific to the approach for Toronto Island Park and have been informed through the public engagement process.
The Park should:
During Phase 2 of the Master Plan process, the public were invited to share their own ideas about the future of Toronto Island Park. Over 140 ideas were submitted. The project team evaluated each idea to confirm their alignment with the Vision, Values, and Guiding Principles that were established through public engagement in Phase 1.
Five Lenses were then developed as a way to organize and group the public’s ideas. Each lens works independently, but they also work together and are one of the organizing elements of the Draft Master Plan. Each lens proposes a series of Key Recommendations and Supporting Actions to help realize each recommendation. The recommendations and actions may target a specific area of the Island or they may be applicable Island-wide.
The five Lenses and corresponding recommendations and actions are described below, and are further illustrated using demonstration plans that map out how the ideas might begin to take shape in the physical spaces of the Island and contribute to an overall plan.
The ideas outlined in Lenses 2 through 5 are based on inputs received through the extensive engagement process that took place during Phase 1, and include inputs from City staff at various divisions, advisory groups, and the public.
Mnisiing, the original name for the islands, is a significant place for the First Peoples of this territory and used by Indigenous peoples long before written history. Through our continued learning, and sharing by elders and traditional knowledge holders, we have heard that since time immemorial, the islands, its sandy shoals, and the sand spits that preceded them were a sacred place where mothers travelled to birth their children, where ceremonies were conducted, where Anishinaabeg harvested staples such as whitefish and wild rice and were places where Indigenous traders to colonial York sought rest and refuge.
The following ideas are based on input and vision from First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities, whose vision and ideas need to be grounded in their culture and worldview:
Designate Snake Island as a formal ceremonial space, providing infrastructure and support for programs and uses. (1A)
Download the Revealing an Indigenous Place briefing document.
Belonging is an essential part of being human – we are hard-wired to want to connect and assert our role as part of a larger group and community—be it with friends, family or the neighbourhoods and communities that we live in. Beyond diversity and inclusion, a sense of belonging is fundamental to establishing a strong sense of community and a person’s feelings of safety and well-being. ‘Belonging’ is centred on tolerance, mutual respect, sharing experiences as well as celebrating the differences and similarities we share with one another and the world around us.
In a city, parks offer a unique and special place to explore our sense of belonging since they act as the fabric that weaves our city together—connecting one natural area to another or knitting one neighbourhood to another to create an intricate and rich network of shared spaces that support our daily lives. Toronto Island Park is no exception. Toronto is a city in which everyone is welcome and people and communities from many diverse backgrounds come together. This sense of welcome, community, pride and belonging needs to also be part of Toronto Island Park for all who visit or live there.
Download the Elevating Equity and Belonging briefing document.
Toronto Island Park offers a visitor experience unlike any other park in the city and is one of the largest parks in Toronto with park features and amenities that have been shaped by the Island’s rich natural and cultural heritage. Approximately 1.5 million people visit annually and as many as 20,000 on a busy summer day. The park is also home to a wide variety of services and amenities, activities and destinations that offer many different experiences to many different people. There is something for everyone on the Island to do or you can visit simply to get away. Visitors currently access the Island via the Jack Layton Ferry Terminal and can begin to plan their visit through the City’s webpage where they can gather Island information related to ferry schedules and ticket prices. Toronto Island is fully open in the summer months with reduced service, programs, and amenities through the spring and fall. Currently, there is very limited activity on the Island in winter.
Download the Enhancing Visitor Experience briefing document.
The Island is an ever-changing place. Formed through the deposit of sand from the erosion of the Scarborough Bluffs over centuries, it supports diverse plants and animals within protected, managed, and unmanaged landscapes. The Island works as an important part of several regional and local natural systems, including being part of the migratory bird flyways, providing habitat for many endangered and threatened animals and plants. The natural heritage of the islands includes 6 Environmentally Significant Areas (ESAs) and 1 Provincially Significant Wetland complex. The Island also serves as an active, vibrant, and open park space for exploration and play by humans that is part of the Core Circle of parks, is a destination waterfront park linked to the city’s larger parkland system and is an important contribution to the city’s biodiversity connecting to the nearby Don River and Tommy Thompson Park.
Download the Supporting a Dynamic Environment briefing document.
At 242 hectares (598 acres) of land area, the Island is one of the largest parks in Toronto with natural and cultural heritage park features and points of interest that provide a diverse park experience for everyone. Toronto Island offers a unique experience that is only accessible by water. During peak seasons, ferries service three landings on the Island and funnel all traffic through one main ferry terminal on the mainland. Outside of peak season (summer months), service is reduced to one Island landing on the east side at Wards Island. Circulation on the Island also impacts the safety and enjoyment of visitors throughout the park. Once on the Island, visitors can rent bicycles and some watercraft at a limited capacity.
Download the Improving Access and Connection briefing document.
Demonstration plans are a way to show how some of the ideas become proposed physical improvements to Toronto Island. They include recommendations that can be applied to specific Island districts, specific focus areas or they may also be applicable for roll-out across the Island. Demonstration plans are just one example of how the ideas can be mapped to the Island and there are many demonstration plans that contribute to and will be included in the Draft Master Plan. Demonstration plans are not detailed designs that will be constructed. These high-level plans will be used to help set the ideas and key recommendations of the plan in context to inform future discussions, decision making, and budget requests in order to pursue additional studies, detailed design, and engagement processes for these ideas and proposed improvements to become a reality.
The Draft Master Plan includes demonstration plans for the four Island Districts: Hanlan’s Point, Gibraltar Point, Centre Island and Ward’s Island, as well as smaller plans for additional focus areas within each district. The Draft Master Plan is being shared with the public through an Open House where the public is being invited to share their comments on the information being presented. This feedback will be used to inform the Final Master Plan that will be shared with the public at a celebration in summer 2023.
The final Master Plan will be comprised of the following components:
Toronto Island is a complex park that involves the participation of many different City divisions to maintain and operate. In a similar way, Park planning and decision making for improvements in this park now and in the future is informed by many different studies and strategic initiatives being completed by the City, TRCA, the Port Authority, and others. The Toronto Island Master Plan is being developed in consideration of and in coordination with the key recommendations of these studies.
The following list provides an example of the other studies and initiatives that are informing the Master Plan:
This list is constantly evolving and being updated. Throughout the Master Plan process and beyond, these strategic initiatives will inform strategic thinking and decision making to ensure the Toronto Island Park Master Plan is a current and meaningful document. As the city’s population grows, demands on park spaces increase. As trends change and new recommendations emerge, the Master Plan will be reviewed and updated in order to remain relevant. In this way, the Toronto Island Master Plan will be a living document that will ensure the sustainability and integrity of Toronto Island Park for years to come.
A Public Life Study was undertaken from August to September 2020 to better understand how the Island is used. Measuring public life – how many people walk by, who stops to sit down, what they do there – is critical in understanding the successes and challenges of a public space. Data was collected through a combination of behavioural observation and surveys. The findings of this study have helped to inform the Toronto Island Park Master Plan.