On May 10, 2023, City Council adopted the Official Plan Amendment and Zoning By-law Amendment to permit multiplexes citywide. These amendments are in effect as no appeals were received.


For detailed information about the current zoning on a property, please visit the Zoning By-Law page.

The Multiplex study is one component of the City’s Expanding Housing Options in Neighbourhoods (EHON) initiative. This study focused on permitting multiplexes – residential buildings containing up to four units – across Toronto’s low-rise neighbourhoods. Please see the Study Overview section below for more details on how the study was undertaken.

Summary of Study

On May 10, 2023, City Council adopted the Official Plan Amendment and Zoning By-law Amendment to permit multiplexes citywide.

This section summarizes the study that led to the final amendments.

The Multiplex study is part of the Expanding Housing Options in Neighbourhoods initiative which aims to bring more types of housing to Toronto’s low-rise neighbourhoods. This study proposes to permit multiplexes in all areas designated Neighbourhoods in Toronto’s Official Plan. The proposal supports a more equitable approach to growth in Toronto, extending a more flexible use of residential buildings to residents of all of Toronto’s Neighbourhoods.

What is Multiplex Housing

For the purposes of this study, we mean housing with 2, 3, or 4 units in a single building. This housing type is also referred to as a duplex, triplex, or fourplex. These homes could be rental or condominium units and they could either be in the form of converted houses or purpose-built as a multiplex.

Guiding Principles

Toronto is a rapidly growing city which is evolving as it grows. Though the city’s housing stock has been growing along with the population, most of this growth has occurred in high-rise apartments. The Multiplex study is one component of the City’s work to help grow low-rise forms of housing which are greatly needed. To guide this work, the Multiplex team used the following principles to guide the study:

Neighbourhoods for Everyone – quality of life and range of choice for people of all ages and abilities, for diverse, equitable and inclusive communities.

City of Neighbourhoods – recognize the distinctive feel of Toronto’s many neighbourhoods by allowing growth in a built form that fits within their existing scale while adapting to people’s evolving housing needs.

Low-Rise Neighbourhoods – enable opportunities in lower-scale areas to contribute to the variety of built form available across the city.

Green and Livable Neighbourhoods – make efficient use of land and infrastructure while balancing management of tree canopy, soft landscaping and sustainability objectives and providing access to parks, open spaces and natural heritage features.

Facilitate Multiplexes in Neighbourhoods – make it easier to build multiplexes through simplified zoning and approval processes, reducing financial barriers and expanding permissions to more areas across the city.


Prior to the adoption of the Multiplex amendments, in many parts of Toronto the existing zoning permitted large homes, but often limited to one or two units. The approach of this study was to allow up to four units in generally the same building size as what was currently permitted. However, the adopted proposal included some zoning changes to make multiplexes more feasible to build.

Thinking Inside the Box: More Units, Same Scale

Existing zoning envelopes permit building volumes that can be better leveraged to house additional units within a low-rise scale.

Diagram of an existing house and a possible multiplex design, showing that three units can fit into the permitted building envelope of the existing zoning.

Study Timeline

The Multiplex study began in 2020, with public consultation beginning in 2021 and continuing through 2022-23.

In October 2021, an online survey was posted which resulted in a strong majority of respondents supporting multiplexes in their neighbourhood.

From February to May 2022, the team held 14 consultation events in a variety of formats to hear from members of the public, including Webex meetings, Twitter Spaces, a Reddit Ask Me Anything, and in-person walking tours of existing multiplexes.

Following this consultation, the Multiplex Proposals Report (2022.PH35.3) was adopted by Planning and Housing Committee on July 5, 2022.

In February and March 2023, the team held public and stakeholder consultation events on a revised draft Official Plan Amendment and draft Zoning By-law Amendment. Staff have considered feedback received to develop the final recommended amendments that will enable multiplexes in Toronto’s Neighbourhoods.

Multiplex Official Plan Amendment (In Effect as of June 14, 2023)

The Official Plan Amendment (OPA) clarifies permissions and development criteria for multiplexes in Neighbourhoods. The OPA is structured as a Site and Area-Specific Policy (SASP), located in Chapter 7 of the Official Plan.  The SASP applies to all lands within the city that have a Neighbourhoods land use designation, as shown in yellow on Official Plan Maps 13-23.

Map of land use designations in Toronto Official Plan.
Official Plan Land Use Map; Neighbourhoods are shown in yellow.

Ongoing work through the EHON initiative and the Municipal Comprehensive Review may result in future changes to Official Plan policies pertaining to Neighbourhoods. The changes proposed in the draft OPA below are being introduced now to facilitate the creation of multiplexes in the near term.

Multiplex Zoning By-Law Amendment (In Effect as of May 12, 2023)

See reference map below.

Simple Reference Map for Multiplex Zoning By-law Amendment maps and diagrams. The city of Toronto is subdivided into parts A through Q.

The zoning by-law amendment permits duplexes, triplexes and fourplexes within the RD, RS and RT zones while applying similar built form standards to multiplexes to ensure a consistency of scale. The amendment allows multiplex building types to be built within roughly the same building envelope that would be permitted for a detached house, with some adjusted standards.

Key changes proposed in the zoning by-law amendment for multiplexes:

  • Permit multiplex building types in RD, RS and RT zones
  • Harmonize building depth, side yard setbacks, and main wall height regulations for all building types
  • Exempt multiplex building types from FSI regulations
  • Permit multiplexes up to 10 metres in height, in zones where the current maximum height is less than 10 metres
  • Permit up to two porches/decks/balconies​ per unit
  • Lift restrictions on multiple front entrances for secondary suites
  • Amend “U” values to permit up to 4 units in all residential zones
  • Exempt multiplexes from “ST” values that specify the maximum number of storeys permitted

The zoning amendment would not change these standards:

  • Front and rear yard setbacks
  • Landscaped open space
  • Driveway width
  • Lot coverage

PH29.9 – Expanding Housing Options in Neighbourhoods: Multiplex Study –Interim Report (November 2021)

PH35.3 – Expanding Housing Options in Neighbourhoods: Multiplex Study –Proposals Report (July 2022)

PH3.13 – Expanding Housing Options in Neighbourhoods: Multiplex Study – Final Report (May 2023)

Related Work

Urban Land Institute Toronto Technical Assistance Panel

The Multiplex Team engaged a technical assistance panel organized by the Urban Land Institute Toronto to explore the financial feasibility of building multiplexes in Toronto. The panel was made up of professionals with expertise in architecture and design, planning, development, and financing. The panel provided analysis and recommendations to the team which will inform the final recommendations to City Council. View the report.

ReHousing: University of Toronto, John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture Landscape and Design

ReHousing is a research project coordinated at the University of Toronto, Daniels Faculty. The research work is a collaboration between Tuf Lab and LGA Architectural Partners that explores how to convert single-family homes into multi-unit housing. The project uses affordable and common-sense design to compare renovations, additions, and new construction housing options. This project is not affiliated with the Multiplex Team or the City of Toronto, but this research team has produced other modeling which has informed the work of the Multiplex Team. Visit their project website.