44-Ward Model (2014-2018)
Prior to the 2018 municipal election, when the 25-Ward Model was implemented, there were 44 Wards. The Ward Profiles listed below are for the former 44-Ward Model, which reflects the 2014-2018 term of City Council.
Ward Profiles are also available for the 25-Ward Model (for the 2018-2022 term of City Council) and the 47-Ward Model (proposed through the Toronto Ward Boundary Review and voted in favour of by City Council for the 2018-2022 term, but not implemented).
2016 Ward Profiles contain information from Statistics Canada Census of Population, which is conducted every five years. The 2016 Ward Profiles provide demographic information on population by age, households and dwelling types, families, language group, household tenure and period of construction; immigration, mobility, ethnic origin and visible minorities; education and labour force; income and shelter cost.
The 2011 Ward Profiles contain similar demographic information as the 2016 Ward Profiles, except the information is in two different profiles for each 2011 Ward.The 2011 Census Profiles contain information on population by age, households and dwelling types, families, and language groups. The 2011 National Household Survey Profiles contain information on household tenure and period of construction; immigration, mobility, ethnic origin and visible minorities; education and labour force; income and shelter costs.
To review the profiles from the 2014-2018 term of City Council, please click on a ward.
These Ward Profiles were prepared by the Research and Information Unit of the Strategic Initiatives, Policy and Analysis Section of the City Planning Division. Based on custom tabulations of Statistics Canada’s 2016, 2011 and 2006 Censuses and the 2011 National Household Survey, these Profiles provide a portrait of the demographic, social and economic characteristics of the people and households in each City Ward. As a result of rounding, totals may differ slightly from table to table and percentages may not add up to one hundred. For more information, please go to the Census Glossary tabs at the top of the page. On May 29, 2018, revised versions of the 2016 Ward Profiles were published with corrected Average and Median Individual Incomes for all persons, males and females. No other information was changed.
In 2011, there were changes in the way information was collected for the long-form portion of the 2011 Census. The information previously collected by the long-form Census was collected in 2011 as part of the new voluntary National Household Survey (NHS) by Statistics Canada. In 2016, Statistics Canada restored the mandatory long-form Census. These changes make it difficult to compare 2011 and 2016 Census year data. In general, the 2011 NHS data is less comparable to that of all Censuses prior to 2011, and the 2016 Census. For more information, please go to the Census Glossary tabs on this page.
Information on the availability of Census of Canada data can be obtained from Statistics Canada, by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or its toll-free access number 1-800-263-1136.
The information in this Ward Profile is adapted from Statistics Canada, 2016 Census, 2011 Census, 2011 National Household Survey and 2006 Census. This does not constitute an endorsement by Statistics Canada of this product.
Comparing 2016 and 2011 Census Data
Each year, the Census comprises of two questionnaires; a short-form questionnaire that is distributed to all households; and a long-form questionnaire that is distributed to a sample number of households and includes more detailed questions.
In 2011, there were changes in the way information was collected for the long-form portion of the 2011 Census. The information previously collected by the long-form Census was collected in 2011 as part of the new voluntary National Household Survey (NHS) by Statistics Canada. In 2016, Statistics Canada restored the mandatory long-form Census.
These changes make it difficult to compare 2011 and 2016 Census year data. In general, the 2011 NHS data is less comparable to that of all Censuses prior to 2011, and the 2016 Census. This is due to non-response bias that is inherent in voluntary surveys. Non-response bias can occur when people do not respond to a survey “because non-respondents tend to have different characteristics from respondents. As a result, there is a risk that the results will not be representative of the actual population”, notes the 2011 National Household Survey User Guide. In regards to the 2011 NHS Profile information, Statistics Canada states: “For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimates, the global non-response rate (GNR) is used as an indicator of data quality. This indicator combines complete non-response (household) and partial non-response (question) into a single rate. The value of the GNR is presented to users. A smaller GNR indicates a lower risk of non-response bias and as a result, lower risk of inaccuracy. The threshold used for estimates’ suppression is a GNR of 50% or more.”
The risk of non-comparable data for population groups grows when two variables are cross-tabulated or tabulated for small geographic areas, such as variables relating to minority populations, income and shelter costs. Seventy-four percent of the Census Tracts in the City of Toronto reported by the 2011 NHS have a Global Non-Response Rate above 25%, the threshold for data suppression employed by Statistics Canada for the 2011 Census. Comparisons may be more suitable where the Global Non-Response Rates of the geographies are similar and the Coefficients of Variation of the variables are low.
The changes mean that results of the voluntary 2011 National Household Survey cannot be easily compared to the mandatory 2016 Census results. Statistics Canada’s Guide to the Census of Population, 2016 notes that “users must be careful when comparing estimates from two surveys, as they can differ significantly in methodology, quality and target population. The estimates from the 2016 Census long-form questionnaire were derived from a mandatory survey that had a high response rate, while the estimates from the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) were derived from a voluntary survey. The response rate for the 2016 Census long-form questionnaire was 96.9%, while the 2011 NHS had a response rate of 68.6%. The definition of the target population of the 2016 Census long-form questionnaire and that of the 2011 NHS were exactly the same.” Use of the results of the voluntary 2011 NHS requires a careful understanding of the significant differences and higher non-response inherent in the NHS by comparison to the long-form Census of 2016 and previous years.
The Ward and Community Council Profiles are based on a series of custom tabulations from the 2016 Census, 2011 Census and 2011 National Household Survey, and 2006 Census of Statistics Canada. The 2016 custom tabulations are based on the long-form Census questionnaire. The custom tabulations used in the 2011 Ward Profiles are different.
In 2011, the Census methodology changed to include a mandatory short-form questionnaire and a voluntary long-form questionnaire for the National Household Survey). As a result, the 2011 Ward and Community Council Profiles included data from both the Census short form and the NHS long-form questionnaire for that year. The data are not easily compared because of the distinct samples. To distinguish between the two datasets, City Planning published two sets of Profile documents for each Ward for the 2011 Census year; the 2011 Census Profile (the short-form questionnaire) and the 2011 National Household Survey Profile (the long-form questionnaire) which are available on the City of Toronto’s website.
Comparing 2016 and 2011 Ward Profile Topics
The City of Toronto 2016 Ward Profiles are published as one complete profile and document. The data found in this 2016 Census Profile combines the topics found in the 2011 Census Profile and the 2011 National Household Survey.
The replacement of the voluntary National Household Survey by the restoration of the long-form Census in 2016 allows for accurate comparison between 2016 and 2006 Census information, and for Censuses prior to 2006. The mandatory 2016 Census results cannot be easily compared to the results of the voluntary 2011 National Household Survey due to the differing sample and lower response rates to the voluntary survey. When comparing Ward Profile data for years 2011 to 2016, users should be aware that the results of the 2016 long-form Census are considered to be more reliable than those the 2011 National Household Survey. For example, the results of the 2011 National Household Survey were found to significantly undercount employment in the City.
When comparing Ward Profile data between these years, readers should be aware of which Census questionnaires were used in each year for each topic. Comparing the same topics, but with different questionnaires and samples will impact comparability. In particular, users and readers of the Ward Profiles should be aware of the different population/ household samples used in 2011 and 2016 to produce the Ward data for “Households & Dwellings”, “Families” and “Language Groups.”
The following table provides a summary by Ward Topic of the census questionnaires used in both 2011 and 2016 by Statistics Canada, in producing the custom tabulations used in the City of Toronto Ward Profiles.
|Ward Profile Topic||2016 Profile Data||2011 Profile Data|
|Population||Short Form Census||Short Form Census|
|Dwellings||Long Form Census||Short Form Census|
|Families||Long Form Census||Short Form Census|
|Population in Dwellings||Long Form Census||National Household Survey|
|Migration & Mobility||Long Form Census||National Household Survey|
|Language Groups||Long Form Census||Short Form Census|
|Education||Long Form Census||National Household Survey|
|Ethnocultural||Long Form Census||National Household Survey|
|Labour Force||Long Form Census||National Household Survey|
2016 Ward Profiles – Toronto Totals
The city of Toronto totals refer to the municipal boundary of the City of Toronto. The City of Toronto municipal boundary corresponds to the Census geography referred to as the Toronto Census Division (Toronto CD, 3520) and the Toronto Census Subdivision (Toronto CSD, 3520005).
The 2016 Ward Profile custom tabulations are based on the long form questionnaire i.e. the 25% sample of the population in private households who received the long-form questionnaire. The custom tabulations provide data for the Wards and Toronto. The Toronto totals included in the Ward Profiles are based on the custom tabulations.
As a result, it is possible that Toronto totals referenced in other documents may have slight variances in reported totals when compared to what is reported in the Ward Profiles. This is because the Ward Profiles are based on the Census short-form questionnaire. Other documents may report City of Toronto totals that are based on the long-form Census questionnaire and reflect a different sampling and survey approach. These variances are most likely to occur for the questions and variables that feature on the short-form Census, including the “Households & Dwellings”, “Families” and Language Groups” topics in this Ward Profile.
Table Totals and Random Rounding
The figures shown in the tables have been subjected to a confidentiality procedure known as “random rounding” by Statistics Canada, wherein each of the numbers is randomly rounded up or down by five or 10. This is intended to prevent the possibility of associating these data with any identifiable individual. The totals of each table are the sum of the individual population characteristics in that table as provided by Statistics Canada, each of which may have been randomly rounded. As a result, due to random rounding, the totals for any one table may vary from the total population count for that area as reported by Statistics Canada
For the first time, the 2016 Census gathered income data solely from administrative sources, rather than asking Census participants to self-report their income levels. The reference period for income data is the calendar year 2015.
The 2016 Census provided data on the category of admission and applicant type for immigrants with permanent resident status as a result of a record linkage to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada’s (IRCC) administrative immigration records for immigrants admitted to Canada between 1980 and 2016.
For more information, see:
The population universe (target population) of the 2016 Census includes the following groups:
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants (permanent residents) with a usual place of residence in Canada.
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants (permanent residents) who are abroad either on a military base or attached to a diplomatic mission.
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants (permanent residents) at sea or in port aboard merchant vessels under Canadian registry or Canadian government vessels.
- Persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who are claiming refugee status and family members living with them.
- Persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold study permits and family members living with them.
- Persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold work permits and family members living with them.
For Census purposes, these last three groups of people are referred to as ‘non-permanent residents.’ They have been included since 1991. Foreign residents are excluded from the population universe. Foreign residents are persons who belong to the following groups:
- Government representatives of another country attached to the embassy, high commission or other diplomatic body of that country in Canada, and members of their families living with them.
- Members of the Armed Forces of another country who are stationed in Canada, and family members living with them
- Residents of another country visiting Canada temporarily (for example, a foreign visitor on vacation or on business, with or without a visitor’s permit).
Person who lives in an institutional collective dwelling, such as a hospital, a nursing home or a prison. This includes residents under care or custody (e.g., patients or inmates) or employee residents and family members living with them if any.
Population in Private Households
Other than the Total Population by Age, population in private households is the applicable population for all 2016 Ward Profile topics based on the 2016 Census long-form questionnaire.
Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2016. This variable is derived from date of birth.
The median age is an age ‘x’, such that exactly one half of the population is older than ‘x’ and the other half is younger than ‘x’.
The total demographic dependency ratio is the ratio of the combined youth population (0 to 19 years) and senior population (65 or older) to the working-age population (20 to 64 years). It is expressed as the number of “dependents” for every 100 “worker. The demographic dependency ratio is based on age rather than employment status. It does not account for young people or seniors who are working, nor for working-age people who are unemployed or not in the labour force. It merely reflects population age structure and is not meant to diminish the contributions made by people classified as “dependents.”
Number of persons occupying a private dwelling.
Category to which a person living alone or a group of persons occupying the same dwelling belong. There are two categories: non-family households and family households.
- A non-family household consists of either one person living alone or of two or more persons who share a dwelling, but do not constitute a family.
- Family households are divided into two subcategories: one-family households and multiple-family households.
Structural type of dwelling
Characteristics that define a dwelling’s structure, for example, the characteristics of a single-detached house, a semi-detached house, a row house, or an apartment or flat in a duplex.
- Single-detached house – A single dwelling not attached to any other dwelling or structure (except its own garage or shed). A single-detached house has open space on all sides, and has no dwellings either above it or below it.
- Semi-detached house – One of the two dwellings attached side by side (or back to front) to each other, but not to any other dwelling or structure (except its own garage or shed). A semi-detached dwelling has no dwellings either above it or below it, and the two units together have open space on all sides.
- Row house – One of three or more dwellings joined side by side (or occasionally side to back), such as a townhouse or garden home, but not having any other dwellings either above or below.
- Apartment or flat in a duplex – One of two dwellings, located one above the other, may or may not be attached to other dwellings or buildings.
- Apartment in a building that has five or more storeys – A dwelling unit in a high-rise apartment building which has five or more storeys.
- Apartment in a building that has fewer than five storeys – A dwelling unit attached to other dwellings units, or other non-residential space in a building that has fewer than five storeys.
- Other single-attached house – A single dwelling that is attached to another building and that does not fall into any of the other categories, such as a single dwelling attached to a non-residential structure (e.g., a store or a church) or occasionally to another residential structure (e.g., an apartment building).
- Mobile home – A single dwelling, designed and constructed to be transported on its own chassis and capable of being moved to a new location on short notice. It may be placed temporarily on a foundation, such as blocks, posts or a prepared pad (which may be covered by a skirt).
- Other movable dwelling – A single dwelling, other than a mobile home, used as a place of residence, but capable of being moved on short notice, such as a tent, recreational vehicle, travel trailer or houseboat.
Grouped Dwelling Types by Period of Construction
For comparative purposes the Census dwelling structure data types were re-grouped two dwelling structure types in the Ward Profile highlight pages:
- Ground Related Housing by Period of Construction includes single and semi-detached houses, row/townhouses; apartment units in buildings with less than 5 storeys and apartments or flats in duplexes and other dwellings such as mobile homes.
- Apartments by Period of Construction include apartments in a building that has five or more storeys.
Census family structure (families by type)
Refers to the classification of Census families into married couples (with or without children of either and/or both spouses), common-law couples (with or without children of either and/or both partners), and lone-parent families by sex of parent.
A couple may be of opposite or same sex. A couple with children may be further classified as either an intact family or stepfamily and stepfamilies may, in turn, be classified as simple or complex. Children in a Census family include grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present.
Census family composition (families by number of children)
Refers to the classification of Census families (that is, married or common-law couples, with or without children, and lone parents with at least one child) by the number and/or age group of children living at home. A couple may be of opposite or same sex.
A couple with children may be further classified as either an intact family or stepfamily and stepfamilies may, in turn, be classified as simple or complex. Children in a Census family include grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present.
Period of Construction
Refers to the period in time during which the building or dwelling was originally constructed. This refers to the period in which the building was originally built, not the time of any later remodelling, additions or conversions.
The private dwellings occupied by usual residents universe is composed of variables which pertain to characteristics of dwellings in Canada. Dwellings are distinct from households. Dwelling characteristics refer to the physical attributes of a set of living quarters, whereas household characteristics pertain to the person or the group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada.
Refers to whether the household owns or rents their private dwelling, or whether the dwelling is band housing (on an Indian reserve or settlement).
Refers to whether the private dwelling is part of a condominium development. A condominium is a residential complex in which dwellings are owned individually while land and common elements are held in joint ownership with others.
Household Maintainer Glossary
Primary Household Maintainer (PHM)
Refers to whether or not a person residing in the household is responsible for paying the rent, or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity or other services or utilities. Where a number of people may contribute to the payments, more than one person in the household may be identified as a household maintainer. If no person in the household is identified as making such payments, the reference person is identified by default. An occupied private dwelling will have at least one Primary Household Maintainers (PHM). As a result, the number of PHMs can also serve as a proxy for the number of households within each occupied dwelling.
Age Group of Primary Household Maintainer
Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2016.
The private households universe is composed of sub-universes and variables which pertain to the person or the group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. Household variables are distinct from dwelling variables, in that the latter ones pertain to dwelling characteristics, not to persons occupying the dwelling.
Migration, Mobility and Languages Glossary
Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person’s parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more. Generation status is derived from responses to questions concerning the person’s place of birth and the place of birth of his or her parents. Within the generation status variable, the three main categories are defined as follows:
- First generation includes persons who were born outside of Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.
- Second generation includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.
- Third generation or more includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.
Immigrant status refers to whether the respondent is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.
- Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.
- Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2016 census, the term Immigrants includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2016.
Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.
Refers to an immigrant who first obtained his or her landed immigrant or permanent resident status between January 1, 2011 and May 10, 2016.
Refers to the name of the immigration program or group of programs under which an immigrant has been granted for the first time the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Data on admission category are available for immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 1980 and May 10, 2016.
- Economic immigrants includes immigrants who have been selected for their ability to contribute to Canada’s economy through their ability to meet labour market needs, to own and manage or to build a business, to make a substantial investment, to create their own employment or to meet specific provincial or territorial labour market needs.
- Immigrants sponsored by family includes immigrants who were sponsored by a Canadian citizen or permanent resident and were granted permanent resident status on the basis of their relationship either as the spouse, partner, parent, grandparent, child or other relative of this sponsor. The terms ‘family class’ or ‘family reunification’ are sometimes used to refer to this category.
- Refugees includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status on the basis of a well-founded fear of returning to their home country. This category includes persons who had a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in particular social group or for political opinion (Geneva Convention refugees) as well as persons who had been seriously and personally affected by civil war or armed conflict, or have suffered a massive violation of human rights. Some refugees were in Canada when they applied for refugee protection for themselves and their family members (either with them in Canada or abroad). Others were abroad and were referred for resettlement to Canada by the United Nations Refugee Agency, another designated referral organization or private sponsors.
- Other immigrants includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status under a program that does not fall under the economic immigrants, the immigrants sponsored by family or the refugee categories.
Refers to whether an immigrant was identified as the principal applicant, the spouse or the dependant on the application for permanent residence.
Mobility Status – Place of residence one year ago
Information indicating whether the person lived in the same residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, as he or she did one year before, May 10, 2015. This means that we have ‘movers’ and ‘non-movers.’ There are different types of ‘movers’: people who moved within the same city or town (non-migrants), people who moved to a different city or town (internal migrants) and people who came from another country to live in Canada (external migrants).
Mobility Status – Place of residence five years ago
Information indicating whether the person lived in the same residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, as he or she did five years before, May 10, 2011. This means that we have ‘movers’ and ‘non-movers.’ There are different types of ‘movers’: people who moved within the same city or town (non-migrants), people who moved to a different city or town (internal migrants) and people who came from another country to live in Canada (external migrants).
Period of Immigration
Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained his or her landed immigrant/permanent resident status.
A landed immigrant/permanent resident is a person who has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2016 Census, ‘Immigrants’ includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2016.
Place of Birth
Place of birth refers to the name of the province, territory or country in which the person was born. It may refer to a province or territory if the person was born in Canada. It refers to a country if the person was born outside Canada. The geographic location is specified according to boundaries current at the time the data are collected, not the boundaries at the time of birth.
Refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual at the time of the Census.
Refers to the language spoken most often or on a regular basis at home by the individual at the time of the Census.
Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree
Information indicating the person’s most advanced certificate, diploma or degree. This is a derived variable obtained from the educational qualifications questions, which asked for all certificates, diplomas and degrees to be reported. The general hierarchy used in deriving this variable (high school graduation, trades, college, university) is loosely tied to the ‘in-class’ duration of the various types of education.
At the detailed level, someone who has completed one type of certificate, diploma or degree will not necessarily have completed the credentials listed below it in the hierarchy. For example, a registered apprenticeship graduate may not have completed a high school certificate or diploma, nor does an individual with a master’s degree necessarily have a ‘certificate or diploma above the bachelor’s level.’ Although the hierarchy may not fit all programs perfectly, it gives a general measure of educational attainment.
The following qualifications are to be noted:
- For this variable, the category ‘High school diploma or equivalent’ includes persons who have completed the requirements for graduation from a secondary school or the equivalent, but no postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree. Examples of secondary (high) school equivalency certificates are General Educational Development (GED) and Adult Basic Education (ABE). A secondary (high) school diploma or graduation certificate or equivalent is sometimes classified as junior or senior matriculation, general or technical-commercial.
- The ‘Registered Apprenticeship certificate’ category includes Journeyperson’s designation. A journeyman’s or journeyperson’s certificate in the trades is obtained through successful completion of the examinations for a Certificate of Qualification (COQ). Candidates for the exam must have several years of work experience in the trade or have received their registered apprenticeship certificate through a combination of on-the-job training and in-school training.
- Other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas are brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.
- College, CEGEP and other non-university certificates or diplomas are obtained from: a community college; a CEGEP (both general and technical); an institute of technology; a school of nursing; a private business school; a private or public trade school; or a vocational school. Included in this category are teaching and nursing certificates awarded by provincial departments of education, with the exception of teachers’ or nurses qualifications obtained at university-affiliated faculties of education or nursing. College certificates or diplomas of two years or more usually have a minimum entrance requirement of a secondary (high) school diploma or its equivalent.
- University certificates or diplomas (below or above bachelor level) are awarded for non-degree programs of study completed through a university. They are often connected with professional associations in fields such as accounting, banking, insurance or public administration. If the university certificate or diploma program does not require a bachelor degree to enroll, then it is classified as below the bachelor level. If a university certificate or diploma program normally requires a bachelor’s degree as a prerequisite, then it is classified as above the bachelor level.
- University degrees are obtained through universities and other degree-granting institutions.
- Examples of postsecondary institutions include community colleges, institutes of technology, CEGEPs, schools of nursing, private or public trade schools, private business colleges, and universities.
Ethnic origin refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the respondent’s ancestors.
Visible minority refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as ‘persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.’ The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.
Labour Force Glossary
Persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016:
- Did any work at all at a job or business, that is, paid work in the context of an employer-employee relationship, or self-employment. It also includes persons who did unpaid family work, which is defined as unpaid work contributing directly to the operation of a farm, business or professional practice owned and operated by a related member of the same household;
- Had a job but were not at work due to factors such as their own illness or disability, personal or family responsibilities, vacation or a labour dispute. This category excludes persons not at work because they were on layoff or between casual jobs, and those who did not then have a job (even if they had a job to start at a future date).
Refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016. The number of Employed persons and the Unemployed persons added together to equate to the Labour force.
Not in the Labour Force
Refers to persons who, during the week Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016, were neither employed nor unemployed.
Occupation (based on the National Occupational Classification [NOC-S 2016])
Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The 2016 Census occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2016. The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data was produced according to the NOC 2011.
The National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 is composed of four levels of aggregation. There are 10 broad occupational categories containing 40 major groups that are further subdivided into 140 minor groups. At the most detailed level, there are 500 occupation unit groups. Occupation unit groups are formed on the basis of the education, training, or skill level required to enter the job, as well as the kind of work performed, as determined by the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the occupation.
Industry (based on the North American Industry Classification System [NAICS] 2012)
Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2016 Census industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2012. The 2011 National Household Survey was coded to the NAICS 2007. Statistics Canada have provided a concordance table that shows the relationship between NAICS Canada 2012 and NAICS Canada 2007 only for those areas of the classification which have changed in terms of structure and content.
The NAICS provides enhanced industry comparability among the three North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trading partners (Canada, United States and Mexico). This classification consists of a systematic and comprehensive arrangement of industries structured into 20 sectors, 102 subsectors and 324 industry groups. The criteria used to create these categories are similarity of input structures, labour skills or production processes used by the establishment.
Refers to the labour force in the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016, expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over. The participation rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, geographic area, etc.) is the total labour force in that group, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that group.
Place of Work Status
Classification of respondents according to whether they worked at home, worked outside Canada, had no fixed workplace address, or worked at a specific address (usual place of work).
Refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016, were without paid work or without self-employment work and were available for work and either:
- had actively looked for paid work in the past four weeks; or
- were on temporary lay-off and expected to return to their job; or
- had definite arrangements to start a new job in four weeks or less.
Refers to the unemployed expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016.
Income and Shelter Costs Glossary
The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household.
Average Household Income
Average income of households refers to the sum of total incomes in 2015 of households divided by the total number of households. Average incomes of households are calculated for all units, whether or not they had income.
Average Individual Income
Average income of individuals refers to the dollar amount obtained by adding up the total income of all individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2015 and dividing this sum by the number of individuals with income.
The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).
Composition of Income
The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.
Low-Income and Low Income Measure After Tax (LIM-AT)
Low income refers to whether an individual, family, or households have an income below a specific low-income line. Low Income in 2015 is based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT). The Low-income measure after tax (LIM-AT) is a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of households observed at the person level, where ‘adjusted’ indicates that a household’s needs are taken into account. Adjustment for household sizes reflects the fact that a household’s needs increase as the number of members increase, although not necessarily by the same proportion per additional member. The threshold of income varies based on the size of a household. For 2015, the LIM-AT threshold is $22,133 for a one-person household, $31,301 for a two-person household, and $44,266 for a four-person household.
Shelter-cost-to-income ratio is calculated for private households living in owned or rented dwellings who reported a total household income greater than zero. Shelter-cost-to-income ratio refers to the proportion of average total income of household which is spent on shelter costs. Shelter cost refers to the average monthly total of all shelter expenses paid by households that own or rent their dwelling.
- Shelter costs for owner households include, where applicable, mortgage payments, property taxes and condominium fees, along with the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services.
- Shelter costs for renter households include, where applicable, the rent and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services.
The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2016, while household total income is reported for the year 2015. As well, for some households, the 2015 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.
Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income. Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2015.
It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, Old Age Security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature.
It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements, capital gains, TFSA and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer’s contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.
For more information, see:
The 2016 and 2011 Ward Profiles and Community Council Area Profiles data are available in Excel format. See Ward Profiles on the Open Data webpage.