Period of Construction: Refers to the period in time during which the building or dwelling was originally constructed. This refers to the period in which the building was originally built, not the time of any later remodelling, additions or conversions.
Private Dwellings: The private dwellings occupied by usual residents universe is composed of variables which pertain to characteristics of dwellings in Canada. Dwellings are distinct from households. Dwelling characteristics refer to the physical attributes of a set of living quarters, whereas household characteristics pertain to the person or the group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada.
Tenure: Refers to whether the household owns or rents their private dwelling, or whether the dwelling is band housing (on an Indian reserve or settlement).
Age Group: Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.
Household Maintainer: Refers to whether or not a person residing in the household is responsible for paying the rent, or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity or other services or utilities. Where a number of people may contribute to the payments, more than one person in the household may be identified as a household maintainer. If no person in the household is identified as making such payments, the reference person is identified by default.
Private Households: The private households universe is composed of subuniverses and variables which pertain to the person or the group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. Household variables are distinct from dwelling variables, in that the latter ones pertain to dwelling characteristics, not to persons occupying the dwelling.
Population: The population universe includes variables that provide information about individuals in private households, covering demographic, ethnocultural, language, mobility, education, income, place of work, journey to work and labour force characteristics.
The population universe (the target population) of the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) is the population in private households. It excludes persons whose usual place of residence is a collective dwelling, for example, a hospital, a hotel, or a seniors’ residence.
The target population of the NHS consists of persons from the following groups whose usual place of residence is a private dwelling in Canada:
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants (permanent residents).
- Persons who are claiming refugee status and family members living with them.
- Persons who hold study permits and family members living with them.
- Persons who hold work permits and family members living with them.
For the purposes of the NHS, these last three groups of people are referred to as ‘non permanent residents.’ Foreign residents are excluded from the population universe. Foreign residents are persons who belong to the following groups:
- Government representatives of another country attached to the embassy, high commission or other diplomatic body of that country in Canada, and members of their families living with them.
- Members of the Armed Forces of another country who are stationed in Canada and family members living with them.
- Residents of another country visiting Canada
temporarily (for example, a foreign visitor on vacation or on business, with or without a visitor’s permit).
Primary Household Maintainer: First person in the household identified as someone who pays the rent or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity bill, and so on, for the dwelling.
Structural Type of Dwelling: Characteristics that define a dwelling’s structure, for example, the characteristics of a single-detached house, a semi-detached house, a row house, or an apartment or flat in a duplex.
- Single-detached house – A single dwelling not attached to any other dwelling or structure (except its own garage or shed). A single-detached house has open space on all sides, and has no dwellings either above it or below it. A mobile home fixed permanently to a foundation is also classified as a single-detached house.
- Semi-detached house – One of two dwellings attached side by side (or back to back) to each other, but not attached to any other dwelling or structure (except its own garage or shed). A semi-detached dwelling has no dwellings either above it or below it, and the two units together have open space on all sides.
- Row house – One of three or more dwellings joined side by side (or occasionally side to back), such as a townhouse or garden home, but not having any other dwellings either above or below. Townhouses attached to a high-rise building are also classified as row houses.
- Apartment or flat in a duplex – One of two dwellings, located one above the other, may or may not be attached to other dwellings or buildings
- Apartment in a building that has five or more storeys – A dwelling unit in a high-rise apartment building which has five or more storeys.
- Apartment in a building that has fewer than five storeys – A dwelling unit attached to other dwelling units, commercial units, or other non-residential space in a building that has fewer than five storeys.
- Other single-attached house – A single dwelling that is attached to another building and that does not fall into any of the other categories, such as a single dwelling attached to a non-residential structure (e.g., a store or a church) or occasionally to another residential structure (e.g., an apartment building).
Tenure: Refers to whether the household owns or rents their private dwelling, or whether the dwelling is band housing (on an Indian reserve or settlement).
- Condominium Status – Refers to whether the private dwelling is part of a condominium development. A condominium is a residential complex in which dwellings are owned individually while land and common elements are held in joint ownership with others.
IMMIGRATION / MIGRATION
Generation Status: Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person’s parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more. Generation status is derived from responses to questions concerning the person’s place of birth and the place of birth of his or her parents. Within the generation status variable, the three main categories are defined as follows:
- ‘First generation’ includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.
- ‘Second generation’ includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.
- ‘Third generation or more’ includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.
Immigrant Status: Immigrant status refers to whether the respondent is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.
- Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.
- Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, ‘Immigrants’ includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.
- Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.
Mobility Status – Place of residence 1 year ago: Information indicating whether the person lived in the same residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, as he or she did one year before, May 10, 2010. This means that we have ‘movers’ and ‘non-movers.’ There are different types of ‘movers’: people who moved within the same city or town (non-migrants), people who moved to a different city or town (internal migrants) and people who came from another country to live in Canada (external migrants).
Mobility Status – Place of residence 5 years ago: Information indicating whether the person lived in the same residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, as he or she did five years before, May 10, 2006. This means that we have ‘movers’ and ‘non-movers.’ There are different types of ‘movers’: people who moved within the same city or town (non-migrants), people who moved to a different city or town (internal migrants) and people who came from another country to live in Canada (external migrants).
Period of Immigration: Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained his or her landed immigrant/permanent resident status.
A landed immigrant/permanent resident is a person who has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, ‘Immigrants’ includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.
Place of Birth: Place of birth refers to the name of the province, territory or country in which the person was born. It may refer to a province or territory if the person was born in Canada. It refers to a country if the person was born outside Canada. The geographic location is specified according to boundaries current at the time the data are collected, not the boundaries at the time of birth.
Recent Immigrant: Unknown
Ethnic Origin: Ethnic origin refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the respondent’s ancestors.
Visible Minority: Visible minority refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as ‘persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.’ The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.
Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree: Information indicating the person’s most advanced certificate, diploma or degree. This is a derived variable obtained from the educational qualifications questions, which asked for all certificates, diplomas and degrees to be reported. The general hierarchy used in deriving this variable (high school graduation, trades, college, university) is loosely tied to the ‘in-class’ duration of the various types of education. At the detailed level, someone who has completed one type of certificate, diploma or degree will not necessarily have completed the credentials listed below it in the hierarchy. For example, a registered apprenticeship graduate may not have completed a high school certificate or diploma, nor does an individual with a master’s degree necessarily have a ‘certificate or diploma above the bachelor’s level.’ Although the hierarchy may not fit all programs perfectly, it gives a general measure of educational attainment.
The following qualifications are to be noted:
A. For this variable, the category ‘High school diploma or equivalent’ includes persons who have completed the requirements for graduation from a secondary school or the equivalent, but no postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree. Examples of secondary (high) school equivalency certificates are General Educational Development (GED) and Adult Basic Education (ABE). A secondary (high) school diploma or graduation certificate or equivalent is sometimes classified as junior or senior matriculation, general or technical-commercial.
B. The ‘Registered Apprenticeship certificate’ category includes Journeyperson’s designation. A journeyman’s or journeyperson’s certificate in the trades is obtained through successful completion of the examinations for a Certificate of Qualification (COQ). Candidates for the exam must have several years of work experience in the trade or have received their registered apprenticeship certificate through a combination of on-the-job training and in-school training.
C. Other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas are brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.
D. College, CEGEP and other non-university certificates or diplomas are obtained from: a community college; a CEGEP (both general and technical); an institute of technology; a school of nursing; a private business school; a private or public trade school; or a vocational school. Included in this category are teaching and nursing certificates awarded by provincial departments of education, with the exception of teachers’ or nurses qualifications obtained at university-affiliated faculties of education or nursing. College certificates or diplomas of two years or more usually have a minimum entrance requirement of a secondary (high) school diploma or its equivalent.
E. University certificates or diplomas (below or above bachelor level) are awarded for non-degree programs of study completed through a university. They are often connected with professional associations in fields such as accounting, banking, insurance or public administration. If the university certificate or diploma program does not require a bachelor degree to enrol, then it is classified as below the bachelor level. If a university certificate or diploma program normally requires a bachelor’s degree as a prerequisite, then it is classified as above the bachelor level.
F. University degrees are obtained through universities and other degree-granting institutions.
G. Examples of postsecondary institutions include community colleges, institutes of technology, CEGEPs, schools of nursing, private or public trade schools, private business colleges, and universities.
Employed: Persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011:
(a) did any work at all at a job or business, that is, paid work in the context of an employer-employee relationship, or self-employment. It also includes persons who did unpaid family work, which is defined as unpaid work contributing directly to the operation of a farm, business or professional practice owned and operated by a related member of the same household.
(b) had a job but were not at work due to factors such as their own illness or disability, personal or family responsibilities, vacation or a labour dispute. This category excludes persons not at work because they were on layoff or between casual jobs, and those who did not then have a job (even if they had a job to start at a future date).
Industry (based on the North American Industry Classification System [NAICS] 2007): Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked.
The 2011 National Household Survey industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2007. The NAICS provides enhanced industry comparability among the three North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trading partners (Canada, United States and Mexico). This classification consists of a systematic and comprehensive arrangement of industries structured into 20 sectors, 102 subsectors and 324 industry groups. The criteria used to create these categories are similarity of input structures, labour skills or production processes used by the establishment.
Labour Force: Refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011.
Labour force = Employed + Unemployed
Not in the Labour Force: Refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were neither employed nor unemployed.
Occupation (based on the National Occupational Classification [NOC-S 2011]): Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job.
The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2011. The National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011 is composed of four levels of aggregation. There are 10 broad occupational categories containing 40 major groups that are further subdivided into 140 minor groups. At the most detailed level, there are 500 occupation unit groups. Occupation unit groups are formed on the basis of the education, training, or skill level required to enter the job, as well as the kind of work performed, as determined by the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the occupation.
Participation Rate: Refers to the labour force in the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over. The participation rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, geographic area, etc.) is the total labour force in that group, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that group.
Place of Work Status: Classification of respondents according to whether they worked at home, worked outside Canada, had no fixed workplace address, or worked at a specific address (usual place of work).
Unemployed: Refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were without paid work or without self-employment work and were available for work and either:
(a) had actively looked for paid work in the past four weeks; or
(b) were on temporary lay-off and expected to return to their job; or
(c) had definite arrangements to start a new job in four weeks or less.
Unemployment Rate: Refers to the unemployed expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011.
INCOME / SHELTER COSTS
Average Household Income: Average income of households refers to the sum of total incomes in 2010 of households divided by the total number of households.
Average Individual Income: Average income of individuals refers to the dollar amount obtained by adding up the total income of all individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010 and dividing this sum by the number of individuals with income.
Composition of Income: The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.
Household Income: The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household.
Low-income Measure After Tax (LIM-AT): The Low-income measure after tax (LIM-AT) is a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of households observed at the person level, where ‘adjusted’ indicates that a household’s needs are taken into account. Adjustment for household sizes reflects the fact that a household’s needs increase as the number of members increase, although not necessarily by the same proportion per additional member.
Total Income: Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income.
Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, Old Age Security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as: lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer’s contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.
For more information, see: Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 99-000-X National Household Survey Dictionary, 2011