Injuring or removing a bylaw-protected tree without a permit is illegal and could result in enforcement action, including being fined up to $100,000 per tree. City staff will inspect and respond to reports of a tree-related contravention and may issue remedial orders such as Stop Work Orders and Orders to Comply or pursue prosecution.
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A Tree By-law contravention is any action or activity that violates the City’s Tree By-laws. For example, when someone cuts down or injures a bylaw-protected tree without a permit, they are committing a Tree By-law contravention.
A tree injury is any act that may harm a tree’s health in any manner. Failing to protect a tree according to the City’s standards is also considered a tree injury. Minimum Tree Protection Zones (TPZ) are established to ensure the protection of trees. These areas around bylaw-protected trees must be protected from construction activities. The Tree Protection Policy and Specifications for Construction Near Trees outlines information about TPZ and other specifications.
City of Toronto staff will conduct an investigation to determine compliance with the provisions of Municipal Code Chapters 608, 658 and 813, collectively referred to as the City’s Tree By-laws, and compliance with the conditions of any permits issued.
If you suspect that someone is cutting down or injuring a tree without a permit, you can report it by:
The City of Toronto will investigate reports of potential Tree By-law contraventions and take appropriate action.
When contacting 311, a 311 Operator will ask a series of questions to verify details that assist in the City’s investigation. If you witness a contravention taking place, you can assist the City’s investigation by providing helpful information that answers who, what, where, when, why and how. Helpful evidence includes:
Only make observations or take photos if it is safe to do so. The City of Toronto will ensure the name of a complainant remains confidential, however, photos and videos provided may be used throughout the investigation process and could be used as evidence in court.
311 Operators will also provide you with a reference number so you can follow up on the progress of the investigation. However, City staff are not authorized to release some details about an open contravention investigation.
The City does not accept applications to injure or remove trees after the fact. Instead, once a Tree By-law contravention is confirmed, staff will investigate, collect evidence and determine the appropriate enforcement action. Enforcement actions fall into two main categories or processes:
Under the authority of the Toronto Municipal Code and City of Toronto Act, City of Toronto staff are authorized to enter onto private property at any reasonable time to investigate a suspected or confirmed Tree By-law contravention, or to confirm compliance with the Tree By-law. Failure to provide access may result in enforcement actions including charges. Staff will attempt to contact property owners and obtain permission before entering private property, but will proceed with their inspection if there is no response. If a property owner disputes the authority to enter the property, Toronto Police Services may be called to assist with the investigation.
Witness statements are also important to ensuring successful enforcement actions. If someone witnesses, documents and reports someone committing a Tree By-law contravention, this evidence can be key to establishing proof of a contravention. Residents may be asked to testify in court, in order to use their evidence in court. In court, witnesses must verify their own evidence.
The City of Toronto can issue Stop Work Orders and/or Orders to Comply when Tree By-law contraventions have been committed. The issuance of compliance orders is the most common enforcement action used by the City, as the majority of Tree By-law contraventions can be remediated through corrective work or compensatory replacement planting.
The City of Toronto issues Stop Work Orders when unauthorized tree injuries or removals are in progress. Stop Work Orders require that all work is stopped within the TPZ where contraventions are observed to prevent further injury or damage to trees. Stop Work Orders are typically served immediately, while on-site.
The City of Toronto issues Orders to Comply to correct Tree By-law contraventions when remedial work can be done to prevent further injury, or to compensate for damage to trees or natural features. Orders to Comply are typically served by registered mail to the person or corporation committing the contravention, and include a deadline to complete remedial work. Examples of remedial work can include:
The City will be implementing a Tree Based Compensation pilot project starting on November 1, 2022, affecting compensation planting associated with tree removal permit applications and contraventions in ravine and natural feature protected areas. Under this pilot project, compensation planting ratios will be based on the size of the by-law protected tree removed without authorization. This may result in planting requirements that are greater or lower than 5:1.
Contravention Inspection fees are collected under the authority of:
Contravention Inspection Fees are applied to each bylaw-protected tree that has been removed (destroyed) or harmed (injured) without prior permit authorization. Contravention Inspection Fees are collected to recover staffing and resource costs associated with the investigation of contraventions and the effective enforcement of the Tree Protection By-laws. The fees are identified in Municipal Code Chapter 441, Fees and Charges, Appendix E, Schedule 1 Parks, Forestry and Recreation. These fees are adjusted annually for inflation. All Urban Forestry Tree Protection and Plan Review (TPPR) Office service counters can accept and process these payments.
If Contravention Inspection Fees are not received within 90 days from issuance of the Order to Comply, the City will collect the Contravention Inspection Fee by adding the value to the property owner’s tax roll as per Municipal Code Chapter 441-9. Adding fees and charges to the tax roll.
There is no formal process to appeal the Contravention Inspection Fee. If you wish to have a Fee reviewed, contact email@example.com or 416-395-7316. A review of the investigation file will be conducted to determine if the Fee was applied correctly. A Contravention Inspection Fee will only be waived if a policy or procedural error was made and the Fee was applied incorrectly.
Under the authority of the Toronto Municipal Codes and City of Toronto Act, City staff and its vendors may enter onto private lands to correct a contravention, where an Order to Comply has not been fulfilled by the stated deadline. The cost of this work is charged to the property owner responsible for the contravention. Corrective work that can complete by City vendors includes:
A fine may be awarded by the courts along with other outcomes related to compliance with the contravened bylaw. A person convicted of an offence under the Tree Protection By-law is liable to:
Where it is proven the offending party benefited financially from an offence, a special or additional fine will be applied to reduce or eliminate the benefit gained.
The City will consider the following information when recommending an appropriate fine to be applied:
In addition to a fine as determined through the court process, Contravention Inspection Fees will be applied for each tree under investigation.
In certain circumstances, the City will pursue charges against the offender(s) that are suspected of committing a Tree By-law contravention. The City may pursue charges under Part 3 of the Provincial Offences Act for offences under Municipal Code Chapters 658, 813 and 608. Action is primarily taken on significant offenses including repeat offenders and where there is no work that can fix or remedy the infraction. For example: a severely damaged or completely removed City-owned tree. The main objective is to set appropriate fines for the offense committed and prevent wrongdoing.
City staff consider several factors when deciding whether to pursue charges against offender(s) including: