Injuring or removing a bylaw-protected tree without a permit is illegal and could result in enforcement action, including being fined up to $100,000 per tree. City staff will inspect and respond to reports of a tree-related contravention and may issue remedial orders such as Stop Work Orders and Orders to Comply or pursue prosecution.


The content posted on this website is for general information purposes only and not intended to provide legal advice or opinions. If you wish to seek legal advice please consult with a qualified legal professional.

A Tree By-law contravention is any action or activity that violates the City’s Tree By-laws. For example, when someone cuts down or injures a bylaw-protected tree without a permit, they are committing a Tree By-law contravention.

A tree injury is any act that may harm a tree’s health in any manner. Failing to protect a tree according to the City’s standards is also considered a tree injury. Minimum Tree Protection Zones (TPZ) are established to ensure the protection of trees. These areas around bylaw-protected trees must be protected from construction activities. The Tree Protection Policy and Specifications for Construction Near Trees outlines information about TPZ and other specifications.

City of Toronto staff will conduct an investigation to determine compliance with the provisions of Municipal Code Chapters 608, 658 and 813, collectively referred to as the City’s Tree By-laws, and compliance with the conditions of any permits issued.

If you suspect that someone is cutting down or injuring a tree without a permit, you can report it by:

  • calling 311 if you are located within Toronto city limits
  • calling 416-392-CITY(2489) if you are calling about a tree in Toronto and located outside Toronto city limits
  • creating a 311 service request using the

The City of Toronto will investigate reports of potential Tree By-law contraventions and take appropriate action.

When contacting 311, a 311 Operator will ask a series of questions to verify details that assist in the City’s investigation. If you witness a contravention taking place, you can assist the City’s investigation by providing helpful information that answers who, what, where, when, why and how. Helpful evidence includes:

  • the address where the tree is located
  • the date and time that the contravention took place
  • the estimated size, species and condition of the tree being removed or injured
  • the company names of any contractors on site
  • license plate numbers of contractors on site
  • photos or videos of the contravention taking place

Only make observations or take photos if it is safe to do so. The City of Toronto will ensure the name of a complainant remains confidential, however, photos and videos provided may be used throughout the investigation process and could be used as evidence in court.

311 Operators will also provide you with a reference number so you can follow up on the progress of the investigation. However, City staff are not authorized to release some details about an open contravention investigation.

The City does not accept applications to injure or remove trees after the fact. Instead, once a Tree By-law contravention is confirmed, staff will investigate, collect evidence and determine the appropriate enforcement action. Enforcement actions fall into two main categories or processes:

  1. Compliance Orders
  2. Prosecutions

Powers of entry

Under the authority of the Toronto Municipal Code and City of Toronto Act, City of Toronto staff are authorized to enter onto private property at any reasonable time to investigate a suspected or confirmed Tree By-law contravention, or to confirm compliance with the Tree By-law. Failure to provide access may result in enforcement actions including charges. Staff will attempt to contact property owners and obtain permission before entering private property, but will proceed with their inspection if there is no response. If a property owner disputes the authority to enter the property, Toronto Police Services may be called to assist with the investigation.

Witness statements

Witness statements are also important to ensuring successful enforcement actions. If someone witnesses, documents and reports someone committing a Tree By-law contravention, this evidence can be key to establishing proof of a contravention. Residents may be asked to testify in court, in order to use their evidence in court. In court, witnesses must verify their own evidence.

The City of Toronto can issue Stop Work Orders and/or Orders to Comply when Tree By-law contraventions have been committed. The issuance of compliance orders is the most common enforcement action used by the City, as the majority of Tree By-law contraventions can be remediated through corrective work or compensatory replacement planting.

Stop Work Orders

The City of Toronto issues Stop Work Orders when unauthorized tree injuries or removals are in progress. Stop Work Orders require that all work is stopped within the TPZ where contraventions are observed to prevent further injury or damage to trees. Stop Work Orders are typically served immediately, while on-site.

Orders to Comply

The City of Toronto issues Orders to Comply to correct Tree By-law contraventions when remedial work can be done to prevent further injury, or to compensate for damage to trees or natural features. Orders to Comply are typically served by registered mail to the person or corporation committing the contravention, and include a deadline to complete remedial work. Examples of remedial work can include:

  • Installation of tree protection hoarding.
  • Restoration of TPZ disturbed by construction using good quality soil and mulch.
  • Removal of materials or unauthorized construction that has encroached within TPZ.
  • Removal of fill or restoring grades within protected ravine areas.
  • Compensation tree planting:
    • five (5) trees to be planted for every one (1) Tree By-law regulated tree removed without authorization
    • two (2) trees to be planted for every one (1) tree injured within a Ravine and Natural Feature Protection regulated area without authorization.

Pilot Project

The City will be implementing a Tree Based Compensation pilot project starting on November 1, 2022, affecting compensation planting associated with tree removal permit applications and contraventions in ravine and natural feature protected areas. Under this pilot project, compensation planting ratios will be based on the size of the by-law protected tree removed without authorization. This may result in planting requirements that are greater or lower than 5:1.

Contravention Inspection fees are collected under the authority of:

  • Municipal Code, Chapter 813 Trees, Article II, Trees on City Streets, Section 813-5.V.
  • Municipal Code, Chapter 813 Trees, Article III, Private Tree Protection, Section 813-15.J.
  • Municipal Code, Chapter 658 Ravine and Natural Feature Protection, Section 658-9.B.(5).

Contravention Inspection Fees are applied to each bylaw-protected tree that has been removed (destroyed) or harmed (injured) without prior permit authorization. Contravention Inspection Fees are collected to recover staffing and resource costs associated with the investigation of contraventions and the effective enforcement of the Tree Protection By-laws. The fees are identified in Municipal Code Chapter 441, Fees and Charges, Appendix E, Schedule 1 Parks, Forestry and Recreation. These fees are adjusted annually for inflation. All Urban Forestry Tree Protection and Plan Review (TPPR) Office service counters can accept and process these payments.

Contravention inspection fee payments

If Contravention Inspection Fees are not received within 90 days from issuance of the Order to Comply, the City will collect the Contravention Inspection Fee by adding the value to the property owner’s tax roll as per Municipal Code Chapter 441-9. Adding fees and charges to the tax roll.

Contravention inspection fee appeal

There is no formal process to appeal the Contravention Inspection Fee. If you wish to have a Fee reviewed, contact  or 416-395-7316. A review of the investigation file will be conducted to determine if the Fee was applied correctly. A Contravention Inspection Fee will only be waived if a policy or procedural error was made and the Fee was applied incorrectly.

Remedial work

Under the authority of the Toronto Municipal Codes and City of Toronto Act, City staff and its vendors may enter onto private lands to correct a contravention, where an Order to Comply has not been fulfilled by the stated deadline. The cost of this work is charged to the property owner responsible for the contravention. Corrective work that can complete by City vendors includes:

  • installation of tree protection hoarding to protect TPZ
  • installation of soil and mulch to restore TPZ
  • removal of materials encroaching within TPZ
  • pruning of branches following proper arboricultural practices to mitigate damage to a tree
  • and/or removal of trees that have been destroyed or destabilized.


A fine may be awarded by the courts along with other outcomes related to compliance with the contravened bylaw. A person convicted of an offence under the Tree Protection By-law is liable to:

  • a minimum fine of $500 per tree and to a maximum fine of $100,000 per tree
  • and a special fine of $100,000.

Where it is proven the offending party benefited financially from an offence, a special or additional fine will be applied to reduce or eliminate the benefit gained.

The City will consider the following information when recommending an appropriate fine to be applied:

  • the appraised value of the tree, determined using the City’s tree appraisal method, based on the formula by the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) in association with International Society of Arboriculture (ISA). The appraised tree value calculation is based on the tree diameter, species, condition and location.
  • the value of compensation tree planting required
  • the financial circumstances of the defendant
  • consideration of repeated offenses and convictions
  • impact on neighbours and community
  • and behaviour of defendant during the investigation.

In addition to a fine as determined through the court process, Contravention Inspection Fees will be applied for each tree under investigation.

In certain circumstances, the City will pursue charges against the offender(s) that are suspected of committing a Tree By-law contravention. The City may pursue charges under Part 3 of the Provincial Offences Act for offences under Municipal Code Chapters 658, 813 and 608. Action is primarily taken on significant offenses including repeat offenders and where there is no work that can fix or remedy the infraction. For example: a severely damaged or completely removed City-owned tree. The main objective is to set appropriate fines for the offense committed and prevent wrongdoing.

City staff consider several factors when deciding whether to pursue charges against offender(s) including:

  • whether the contravention may be remediated (repaired) through a Compliance Order
  • obvious and willful disregard of the Tree By-laws
  • accountability of an offender’s profession involved in a contravention (for example: certified arborists, landscapers, etc.)
  • analysis of the quality and type of evidence collected
  • witness statements
  • significance of the offence
  • and/or the date the offence occurred (how much time has lapsed).