The following is a guide for reference only. Please refer to the current version of the Copyright Act. and the other resources at the bottom of this page.


Researchers have responsibilities with regard to copyright. If a researcher makes a copy without the creator’s permission they may be in violation of copyright rules. It is the sole responsibility of the researcher to find the copyright holder.

Where the author of a work was in the employment of some other person under a contract of service or apprenticeship, and the work was made in the course of their employment by that person, the person by whom the author was employed shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright, but where the work is an article or other contribution to a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical, there shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be deemed to be reserved to the author a right to restrain the publication of the work, otherwise than as part of a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical.

If the identity of the author of a work is unknown, copyright in the work shall subsist until the end of 75 years following the end of the calendar year in which the work was made.

Fair Dealing

Fair dealing for the purpose of research, private study, education, parody, or satire does not infringe copyright.

Fair dealing for the purpose of criticism or review does not infringe copyright if the following are mentioned: the source, and if given in the source, the name of the author (in the case of a work), performer (in the case of a performer’s performance), maker (in the case of a sound recording), or, broadcaster (in the case of a communication signal).

Reproduction for Private Purposes

It is not an infringement of copyright for an individual to reproduce a work if:

  • the reproduction was obtained legally.
  • the individual does not give the reproduction away.
  • the reproduction is used only for the individual’s private purposes.