Toronto has one of the most comprehensive integrated waste management systems in North America and manages more than 761,000 tonnes of residential waste each year. In 2022, a total of 377,825 tonnes of residential waste was diverted from landfill through the following programs:
|Garbage Collected (tonnes)
|Waste Diverted (tonnes)
The City follows the methodology for diversion reporting as set out by the Resource Productivity & Recovery Authority (RPRA) Datacall. The Datacall is guided by the Generally Accepted Principles (GAP) for municipal waste measurement, which was established in 1999 to develop a standardized reporting framework that could be used by municipalities across Canada to report waste generation, diversion and disposal. The City’s overall diversion numbers include tonnes collected and processed by the City as well as additional tonnes diverted through other means and calculated based on the Generally Accepted Principles (GAP) for municipal waste measurement.
|City Collected & Processed Items (tonnes)
|City Items + Provincial Allowances for Other Diversion (tonnes)
|Blue Bin Recycling
|Yard Waste/Christmas trees
|Green Bin Organics
|Environment Days/Drop-Off Depots
|Large Appliances/Scrap Metal
|Household Hazardous Waste
|***Deposit Return and Stewardship Program
|Diversion in Tonnes
|Diversion and Garbage
*Calculated using Generally Accepted Principles (GAP) default of 100 kg/backyard composting/year.
** Calculated using Generally Accepted Principles (GAP) as a percentage of the leaf and yard waste tonnes collected based on relevant waste management policies the City has in place (e.g. user-pay system).
***Calculated using Generally Accepted Principles (GAP) default of 5.51 kg/per capita by total population converted to tonnes for metal and glass beer containers sold through the beer store and all types of wine and spirit containers sold through the LCBO.
****Calculated using Generally Accepted Principles (GAP) default of 7.1 kg/per capita by total population converted to tonnes for passenger and light truck tires diverted through the Used Tires Program.
One of the factors impacting the diversion rate over the last several years is the changing nature of packaging. As the diversion rate is a weight-based metric, it has been impacted by the shift from heavier packaging materials, such as glass and metal, to lighter ones such as plastic as well as a reduction in the amount of packaging used. Laundry detergent, for example, is now sold in a concentrated form and packaged in smaller plastic jugs.
Other factors impacting the diversion rate include:
Additionally, our diversion rate continues to be impacted by contamination as it relates to both improperly sorted materials entering the recycling stream as well as materials that are contaminated with food residue. Recycling markets also continue to be impacted by international restrictions on acceptable levels of contamination which have resulted in:
In 2022, the City continued to identify and redirect small quantities of recycling to landfill that were too contaminated to process at the material recovery facility and would not have been accepted by recycling markets.
As weight-based diversion rates do not accurately reflect the overall picture of waste management success, the City has developed additional metrics to better measure performance. These additional metrics were recommended by the Long Term Waste Management Strategy and include:
In addition to educating residents about proper participation in its waste diversion programs, the City also strongly promotes the first two R’s of the waste hierarchy – reduce and reuse. To support and promote a culture of reduction and reuse, the City initiated Community Reduce & Reuse Programs across Toronto. These Programs are delivered in neighbourhood hubs and educate residents on ways to reduce and reuse through activities such as bike repair, canning and preserving to reduce food waste, clothing repair, community composting, and the sharing and repairing of household items. As of the end of 2022, more than 17.18 tonnes of clothing and other textiles had been diverted, 29.65 tonnes of surplus food redistributed, and 20,921 bikes repaired/refurbished through the Programs.
In June 2021, the Province of Ontario finalized the regulation to transition Ontario’s Blue Box Program to full Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). EPR will make producers of packaging and paper products fully financially and operationally responsible for the end-of-life management of materials that they introduce into the marketplace. The benefits of EPR include potential reduction and/or innovation in packaging and potential for increased waste diversion from landfill once recovery targets come into effect in 2026 and onwards.
Throughout the transition phase, from July 1, 2023 to December 31, 2025, all Ontario municipalities will transition their Blue Box Programs to EPR. The City of Toronto will be one of the first municipalities to transition to EPR in year one on July 1, 2023.
Learn about Toronto’s transition to EPR.
In October 2022, the City of Toronto contracted an environmental consultancy firm to conduct litter audits at 300 pre-selected locations within the public realm across the city.
The purpose of the audits was to assess the composition and amount of litter present on Toronto streets. The methodology used in the 2022 audit was consistent with those of previous years.
Litter is classified into two size categories. Large litter is equal to or larger than four square inches (25.8 cm²) and includes items such as paper towels/napkins, beverage cup lids and pieces and plastic packaging. Small litter items are smaller than four square inches (25.8 cm²) and include items such as cigarette butts/debris, receipts and gum.
Key findings from the large litter audits:
• The average amount of large litter has decreased by 48.2% since the first audit in 2002.
• The total number of large litter items increased by 28.6% from 3,024 items in 2020 to 3,887 items in 2022.
• The most commonly found item in the large litter audit was non-branded towels/napkins, representing 10.5% of all large items audited.
Key findings from the small litter audits:
• The average amount of small litter has decreased from an average of 13 items per site in 2020 to 10 items per site in 2022.
• The total number of small litter items decreased by nearly 18.0% from 3,794 items in 2020 to 3,110 items in 2022.
• The most commonly found small litter item was cigarette butts/debris, accounting for 29.6% of all small litter audited, followed by paper at 18.4%.
More information is available in the 2022 Toronto Litter Audit Report.
In 2014, the City of Toronto engaged an independent consultant (Ernst & Young LLP) to review Solid Waste Management Services current collection and operational practices, to identify potential areas for improvement and provide recommendations in a final report for additional safeguards to public safety.
Ernst & Young reviewed four business practice areas to enhance public safety:
In November 2018, Solid Waste Management Services, in partnership with Civic Hall Toronto, hosted a human-centred Design Sprint to get insights into the problem of contamination in recycling, which is costing the City millions of dollars annually.
The main objectives of the event were to:
The Blue Bin Design Sprint-Final Report provides analysis based on the comments of participants who came to the Design Sprint event and how they navigate and experience the Toronto Blue Bin recycling system on a day-to-day basis.