Air Quality for Mid to High-Rise Residential & all Non-Residential Development
- Encourage the use of low emitting fuel efficient vehicles, carpooling and car sharing
- Encourage cycling as a clean air alternative
- Encourage walking as a clean air alternative for all ages and abilities
- Reduce the impact of local heat islands on human and ecosystem health
AQ 1.1 Single-Occupant Auto Vehicle Trips
Reduce single occupancy auto vehicle trips generated by the proposed development by 15 per cent through a variety of multimodal infrastructure strategies and Transportation Demand Management (TDM) measures.¹
AQ 1.2 LEV and Sustainable Mobility Spaces
If providing more than the minimum parking required under the Zoning By-law, the excess spaces must be dedicated priority parking spaces for low-emitting vehicles (LEV), carpooling/ridesharing or for publicly accessible spaces dedicated to shared vehicle systems such as carsharing, ridesharing, or micro mobility systems. 2,3,4
AQ 1.3 Electric Vehicle Infrastructure
Design the building to provide 20 per cent of the parking spaces with electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). The remaining parking spaces must be designed to permit future EVSE installation.5,6,7,8,9,10
AQ 1.4 Single-Occupant Auto Vehicle Trips (Optional)
Reduce single occupancy vehicle trips generated by proposed development by 30 per cent through a variety of multimodal infrastructure strategies and Travel Demand Management (TDM) measures.
AQ 1.5 Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (Optional)
Design the buildings to provide 25 per cent of the parking spaces with electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). The remaining parking spaces must be designed to permit future EVSE installation.5,6,7,8,9,10
Specifications and Resources
- AQ 1.1 applies where Transportation Impact Study (TIS) is required as part of a development application as outlined in the City of Toronto Guidelines for the Preparation of Transportation impact Studies (2013). Prior to undertaking a formal TIS, it is recommended that City staff be consulted to confirm whether a TIS is required and determine the scope of analysis required. Travel Demand Measures may include but are not limited to improvements to pedestrian connections, bicycle parking/bike stations, and dedicated parking for car-sharing vehicles.
- AQ1.2 only applies where there is a minimum Zoning By-law car parking requirement. The effective Zoning By-law is the applicable bylaw in effect for the subject property on the date of the application.
- Low-emitting vehicles (LEV) are defined as vehicles having a Combined Fuel Consumption Rating (CFCR) of 6.5L/100km or less, as defined by Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency. Electric vehicles are considered LEV. Carpooling is when two or more workers share a car ride to work locations. Car-sharing refers to fee-based, shared automobile use that is intended to substitute for private vehicle ownership. It makes occasional use of a vehicle affordable while providing an incentive to minimize driving and rely on alternative travel options as much as possible.
- For institutional, commercial and retail developments, the number of dedicated priority parking spaces (LEV, car-pool or car share) should be no less than one dedicated space for every 10 parking spaces provided above the minimum Zoning By-law requirement.
- EVSE, or energized outlets or receptacles, are acceptable to meet the requirement. All electrical circuits shall be 208-240 VAC single phase with a minimum circuit rating of 32Amps (40 Amp branch breaker). Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) is defined by the Ontario Electrical Safety Code as: the complete assembly consisting of cables, connectors, devices, apparatus, and fittings, installed for the purpose of power transfer and information exchange between the branch circuit and the electric vehicle.
- Parking spaces are defined as inside the building, excluding outdoor parking lots. Provide Level 2 charging capability to the required % of enclosed dedicated parking spaces or by using an electric vehicle energy management system (EV EMS).
- Rough-in provisions include empty raceways starting in a junction box in the electrical room and terminating in a junction box central to each parking floor. Raceways will be empty to accommodate future wiring.
- Section 86 of the Ontario Electrical Safety Code includes provisions for and permits the use of electric vehicle energy management systems (EV EMS) to monitor electrical loads and to control electric vehicle supply equipment loads.
- EV EMS refers to a variety of technologies used to monitor and control electrical loads associated with charging EVs, also referred to as load sharing, load management, panel or circuit sharing or smart charging. EV EMS prevents circuit loads from exceeding the ampere rating of the circuit. Rough-in the remaining parking spaces for future EVSE.
The system must be capable of supplying a minimum performance level of 16 kWh average per EVSE, over an 8-hour period, assuming that all parking spaces are in use by a charging EV:
16kwh/8hrs translates to a 2000W circuit per parking space minimum. For example: 2000W/208V @ 9.6A per outlet or 2000W/240V@ 8.33A per outlet.
- Energized outlets or EVSE parking spaces shall be labelled for the intended use for electric vehicle charging.
AQ 2.1 Bicycle Parking Rates
Bicycle Zone 1: (one per unit) Provide a minimum of 0.9 long-term bicycle parking spaces and 0.1 short-term bicycle parking spaces per dwelling unit.
Bicycle Zone 2: (0.75 per unit) Provide a minimum of 0.68 long-term bicycle parking spaces and 0.07 short-term bicycle parking spaces per dwelling unit.
All other uses: 1,2,3,4
Bicycle Zone 1 and Bicycle Zone 2: Provide long-term and short-term bicycle parking spaces consistent with the non-residential bicycle parking rates identified in Chapter 230 of the City-wide Zoning By-law.
AQ 2.2 Long-term Bicycle Parking Location
Long-term bicycle parking must be provided in a secure controlled-access bicycle parking facility or purpose-built bicycle locker:
(i) on the first storey of the building;
(ii) on the second storey of the building;
(iii) on levels of the building below-ground commencing with the first level below ground.5,6
AQ 2.3 Short-term Bicycle Parking Location
Locate short-term bicycle parking in a highly visible and publicly accessible location at-grade or on the first parking level of the building below grade.7
AQ 2.4 Shower and Change Facilities
Provide shower and change facilities consistent with the rate identified in Chapter 230 of the City-wide Zoning By-law. 1
AQ 2.5 Bicycle Parking Rates (Optional)
Bicycle Zone 1: (1.2 per unit) Provide a minimum of 1.08 long-term and 0.12 short-term bicycle parking spaces per dwelling unit.
Bicycle Zone 2: (one per unit) Provide a minimum of 0.9 long-term and 0.1 short-term bicycle parking spaces per dwelling unit.
AQ 2.6 Publicly Accessible Bicycle Parking (Optional)
For all uses within 500m of transit station entrance, provide at least 10 publicly accessible, short-term bicycle parking spaces, at-grade on the site or within the public boulevard in addition to parking required under AQ 2.1. Bicycle parking must be weather protected except where located in the public boulevard. 8
Provide a publicly accessible Bicycle Shelter at-grade along the site frontage. 9, 10
AQ 2.7 Bicycle Shelter (Optional)
Provide a public bike share location at-grade on the site or within the public boulevard. 11
Specifications and Resources
- Bicycle parking rates, shower and change facilities in the TGS are consistent with the Bicycle Parking Space Regulations, Chapter 230 of the City-wide Zoning By-law.
- All bicycle parking spaces must be designed in accordance with the Bicycle Parking Space Regulations, Chapter 230 of the City-wide Zoning By-law and for other aspects of bicycle parking spaces, refer to the City of Toronto’s Guidelines for the Design and Management of Bicycle Parking Facilities.
- Long-term (occupant) bicycle parking spaces are bicycle parking spaces for use by the occupants or tenants of a building. Short term (visitor) bicycle parking spaces are bicycle parking spaces for use by visitors to a building.
- Bicycle Zone 1 is defined as the area of the City bounded by the Humber River on the west, Lawrence Avenue on the north, Victoria Park Avenue on the east and Lake Ontario on the south. Bicycle Zone 2 includes all areas of the City not included in Bicycle Zone 1.
- Long-term bicycle parking may be provided on levels below-ground, starting on the first level below grade and moving down, in one level increments, when at least 50 per cent of the area of that level is occupied by bicycle parking spaces until all required bicycle parking spaces have been provided. Calculate 50 per cent of the net area of the parking level (deduct required areas such as elevator shafts, drive aisles and mechanical rooms).
- Where bicycle parking is located on or below the second parking level of the building below-ground, provide at least one elevator accessible to bicycles with direct access to each level where bicycle parking is located. The location and dimensions of the elevator must facilitate easy access for bicycles.
- A short-term bicycle parking space must be no more than 30m from a pedestrian entrance to the principal building on the lot.
- Short-term bicycle parking to meet this standard is in addition to bicycle parking provided in AQ 2.1 or AQ 2.5 and is intended for use by the general public. Bicycle parking spaces must be within 30m of the pedestrian entrance to the building, must comply with the City of Toronto’s Guidelines for the Design and Management of Bicycle Parking Facilities, and must be visible from the sidewalk.
- If bicycle parking is proposed within the public right-of-way, only weather protected spaces will be accepted unless technically not feasible. Bicycle parking in the right-of-way is subject to Transportation Services approval.
- Bicycle Shelter is a partially enclosed free-standing structure, providing a roof, and often two or three walls, that shelter bicycle a minimum of 10 spaces for short and mid-term parking needs that may be provided on private property or within the public boulevard where there is a need for higher capacity bicycle parking. Bicycle shelter designs and locations are subject to the approval of Transportation Services, Right-of-Way Management.
- Bike share stations must include a minimum of 11 docking points. Bike share stations may be provided on private property or within the public boulevard. Location and size criteria must be approved by Toronto Parking Authority. Contact Toronto Parking Authority, Manager, Bike Share for details.
AQ 3.1 Connectivity
Provide safe, direct, universally accessible pedestrian routes, including crosswalks and midblock crossings that connect the buildings on-site to the off-site pedestrian network and priority destinations.1
AQ 3.2 Sidewalk Space
Provide a context-sensitive pedestrian clearway that is a minimum of 2.1m wide, to safely and comfortably accommodate pedestrian flow.2,3
AQ 3.3 Weather Protection
Provide covered outdoor waiting areas for pedestrian comfort and protection from inclement weather.4
AQ 3.4 Pedestrian Specific Lighting
Provide pedestrian-scale lighting that is evenly spaced, continuous and directed onto sidewalks, pathways, entrances, outdoor waiting areas and public spaces.5
Specifications and Resources
- Off-site pedestrian networks and priority destinations include sidewalks, transit stops/stations, parking areas (bikes and cars), surrounding parks and open space, mid-block walkways, underground concourses, primary building entrances or other key pedestrian access points, crossings and routes.
- The pedestrian clearway is the universally accessible, unobstructed, direct and continuous path of travel within the sidewalk zone. A clearway greater than 2.1m wide may be required at corners, transit nodes or other contexts with high pedestrian volumes or pedestrian activity (e.g. at-grade patios and retail uses): City of Toronto Accessibility Design Guidelines.
- A context-sensitive sidewalk zone at least 6m wide, measured from curb to buildings face, is recommended to support a variety of streetscape elements including the pedestrian clearway, trees, furniture, lighting, utilities, cafés, etc. that contribute to a vibrant and complete street. For more information see:
Toronto Urban Design Streetscape Manual
Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Study (Performance Standard #7A: Minimum Sidewalk Zones)
Tall Building Design Guidelines (Section 4.2 Sidewalk Zone)
- Outdoor waiting areas must include the primary entrance to the building or any entrance adjacent to a lobby. Coverings such as canopies and awnings should be opaque for shade and weather protection and to mitigate bird collisions.
- Pedestrian scale lighting must be Dark Sky Compliant in accordance with EC 5.1, directed downward and includes fixtures such as bollards or lower-scale pole fixtures along pedestrian routes. For details on pedestrian scale exterior lighting design strategies that minimize light pollution, refer to the Best Practices for Effective Lighting
AQ 4.1 UHI Non-roof Hardscape
Use a combination of the following strategies to treat at least 50 per cent of the site’s non-roof hardscape (including driveways, walkways, courtyards, surface parking areas, artificial turf and other on-site hard surfaces):1,2,3 4
- High-albedo paving materials with an initial solar reflectance of at least 0.33 or SRI of 29
- Open grid pavement with at least 50 per cent perviousness
- Shade from existing tree canopy or new tree canopy within 10 years of landscape installation
- Shade from architectural structures that are vegetated or have an initial solar reflectance of at least 0.33 at installation or and SRI of 29
- Shade from structures with energy generation.
Select one or a combination of the above strategies
Place a minimum of 75 per cent of required parking spaces under cover. Any roof used to shade or cover parking must have a three-year aged SRI of at least 29 or be a green roof or be covered by energy generation systems. 5
AQ 4.2 Green and Cool Roofs
Buildings, where the Green Roof By-law is applied, install a Green Roof to meet the requirements of the Green Roof By-law.6,8
Where the Green Roof By-law does not apply, provide one of the following:7,10
- Green roof for at least 50 per cent of Available Roof Space; OR
- Cool roof installed for 100 per cent of available roof space; OR
- Use a combination of a green, cool roof or solar PV for at least 75 per cent of Available Roof Space.
AQ 4.3 UHI Non-roof Hardscape (Core)
Use any combination of the strategies in AQ 4.1 to treat at least 75 per cent of the site’s non-roof hardscape (including driveways, walkways, courtyards, parking areas, artificial turf and other on-site hard surfaces).9
Specifications and Resources
- Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) is a measure of a surface’s ability to reflect solar heat. The SRI for a given material is calculated using both the reflectance value and emittance value of the material. Black asphalt has an SRI of 0 and a standard white surface is 100. Pavement types range between these values with a SRI of 35 for gray concrete.
- Open grid pavement consists of concrete or hard plastic grid systems with large pore spaces filled with a planted growing medium or light coloured aggregate.
- Shade of 10-year canopy width is measured at solar noon at the summer solstice (approximately June 21). Refer to EC2.1 – 2.5 for the applicable tree planting standards. Shade cast by buildings is not an eligible strategy.
- Energy generation systems consist of solar photovoltaics (PV), solar thermal collectors and wind turbines.
- Refer to LEED V4 BD+C SS Credit: Heat Island Reduction Option 2. Parking spaces do not include drop off and loading areas. Acceptable cover includes underground, under deck, under roof, under building. Uncovered parking at the top level of a multilevel parking structure is not required to meet the prescribed roof criteria because it is considered non-roof surface.
- Refer to the Green Roof By-law for definitions of Green Roof and Available Roof Space, details on calculating the green roof area required and the Toronto Green Roof Construction Standard.
- Cool roofing materials must have a minimum initial reflectance of 0.65 and minimum emittance of 0.90 or a three-year aged SRI value of 64 for a low-sloped roof and a three-year aged SRI of 15 for a steep-sloped roof. Low sloped roofs have a surface slope of less than 1:6 (9.5 degrees) and steeply sloped roofs have a surface slope greater than 1:6 (9.5 degrees).
- Consider designing green roofs to promote biodiversity. Refer to the City of Toronto Guidelines for Designing for Biodiversity on Green Roofs.
- For Tier 2 applications only, a weighted average may be used to calculate non-roof hardscape treated areas using the weighted average calculation.
- Available roof space for cool roof areas consists of the total roof area of the building or building addition excluding private terraces no greater in area than the floor of the abutting residential unit at the roof level.