H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI or “bird flu”) has been detected in Canada, including Toronto. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is responding to cases in farmed birds, backyard poultry and wild birds. See the CFIA’s HPAI monitoring dashboard. If you have backyard hens, practice enhanced infection prevention and biosecurity measures. If you see a sick or dead bird in Toronto, contact 311.

There are a variety of diseases transmissible from animals to people. Diseases of public health significance include avian chlamydiosis (psittacosis), avian influenza, novel influenza, and parasitic infections caused by Echinococcus multilocularis.

Avian chlamydiosis is a disease of birds, caused by the bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci. Although most species of birds are able to transmit the disease, the most common are psittacine (parrot-type) birds, especially cockatiels and budgerigars (commonly called parakeets or budgies). Avian chlamydiosis can also occur in poultry, pigeons and doves as well as canaries and finches, but is less frequently diagnosed in these birds.

Birds can transmit avian chlamydiosis to humans, causing human psittacosis. The transmission of avian chlamydiosis to humans occurs when a person inhales dust or other dried secretions from birds. Bacterial infections caused by C. psittaci can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems in humans.


While there is no vaccine to prevent human psittacosis, there are several things you can do to protect yourself and others, including:

  • Buy pet birds only from a reputable pet store or source.
  • If you own pet birds or poultry, follow best handling and cleaning practices for birds and cages, including:
    • Keep cages clean; clean cages and food and water bowls daily.
    • Position cages so that food, feathers, and droppings cannot spread between them. For example, do not stack cages and use solid-sided cases or barriers if cages are next to each other.
    • Avoid over-crowding of birds.
    • Isolate and treat infected birds; consult your veterinarian immediately if you suspect your bird is sick.
    • Use water or disinfectant to wet surfaces before cleaning bird cages or surfaces contaminated with bird droppings. Avoid dry sweeping or vacuuming to minimize circulation of feathers and dust.
    • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water immediately after contact with birds or their droppings.
    • Use personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves and appropriate masks, when handling infected birds or cleaning their cages.

Avian influenza (“bird flu”) is caused by the Type “A” influenza virus. This virus can affect several species of food-producing birds (chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, etc.), as well as pet and wild birds. Avian influenza viruses are generally categorized based on the severity of disease they cause in birds, namely:

  • Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

While most avian influenza viruses are low pathogenic, causing little or no signs of illness in birds, some avian influenza viruses are highly pathogenic and can cause severe illness and death in birds.

Bird flu is spread by direct contact between infected birds and healthy birds. It can spread when healthy birds come into contact with or interact with equipment (including water and feed) contaminated by the saliva, secretions or feces of infected birds.

Although bird flu mostly spreads among birds, it can spread to other species, such as mammals. While very rare, transmission to humans can occur through exposure to infected birds or contaminated environments, such as live poultry markets. Most avian influenza viruses do not cause disease in humans.

Bird Flu Symptoms

Bird flu is present in wild bird populations across the world. Typically, wild birds (particularly waterfowl) carry bird flu without symptoms, but they can still spread the virus to domestic birds. Once infected, birds such as chickens, ducks and turkeys may show one or many of these symptoms:

  • Loss or lack of appetite
  • Low energy/tiredness (lethargy) or depression
  • Lack of coordination including tremors
  • Decreased egg production for poultry or pet birds
  • Swelling around the head, neck and eyes
  • Coughing and/or sneezing
  • Other symptoms such as diarrhea, and potentially, sudden death

While rare, humans infected with bird flu have symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis (i.e. red eyes with discharge) to influenza-like illness (i.e. fever, sore throat, muscle aches) to severe respiratory illness and in very rare circumstances, death.


There are steps you can take to protect your pets, yourself and others from bird flu.

For Toronto Residents

  • There is currently no vaccine for avian influenza.
  • Do not touch wild birds.
  • Avoid contact with domestic birds such as poultry that appear sick or have died.
  • Only keep birds as pets if obtained from a reputable source; do not keep or care for wild birds.
  • Avoid contact with surfaces that have feces from wild or domestic birds.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water right away after unavoidable contact with birds or their droppings.
  • Poultry and poultry products such as eggs are safe to eat when food is handled and cooked safely.
  • If you own or care for backyard poultry, there are more steps you can take to protect yourself and your birds from bird flu.
  • If you see a sick or dead wild bird, contact 311.

For Pet Owners

  • Do not let your pet touch wild birds. Some birds infected with bird flu may not show symptoms.
  • Keep dogs on leash and supervise them closely in designated off-leash areas.
  • Consider keeping cats indoors to prevent contact with wild birds.
  • Do not feed pets (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.) any raw meat from game birds or poultry.
  • Keep pet food and water bowls indoors so they are not accidentally contaminated by birds or other animals.
  • Consider removing backyard bird feeders/baths or move them far away from pets and clean them with 10% bleach at least once every two weeks and then wash your hands.
  • Talk to your veterinarian if you have any concerns about your pet’s health.

Novel influenza viruses are any type of influenza viruses that are newly discovered in Ontario’s mammals. For example, swine influenza viruses in pigs, equine influenza viruses in horses, and canine influenza in dogs.

Swine, equine and canine influenza viruses rarely infect humans, however occasionally they do. It is believed that the 2009-2010 pandemic influenza virus was the result of swine influenza transmission from pigs to humans. Transmission of novel influenza viruses from animals to humans usually occurs when an infected animal coughs or sneezes and aerosol droplets spread through the air and come in contact with humans.


There are several things you can do to protect yourself and others from novel influenza, including:

  • Stay away from sick animals such as poultry or swine.
  • Avoid contact with surfaces that appear to be contaminated with feces from animals.
  • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water immediately after unavoidable contact with animals or their droppings. Hand sanitizer can be used instead of soap and water if hands are not visibly dirty.

Echinococcus multilocularis is a small tapeworm found commonly in the northern hemisphere. To date, there have only been a few cases of E. multilocularis infections of dogs and cats detected in Ontario. Dogs (or animals such as foxes and coyotes) and rarely cats are the main hosts for the tapeworm.

Humans can be infected by E. multilocularis tapeworms, which can cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE). E. multilocularis infection of humans and animals occurs when there is contact with infective E. multilocularis tapeworm eggs found in the environment or from other animals. For example, transmission to humans mainly occurs through poor hygiene when handling feces, or ingesting microscopic E. multilocularis tapeworm eggs that may be stuck on an animal’s coat.


There are several things you can do to protect yourself and others from being infected with E. multilocularis, including:

  • Stay away from all wild animals, whether they appear tame, injured, or sick; this includes not feeding wild animals on public or private property.
  • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water immediately after:
    • Unavoidable contact with wild animals or their droppings.
    • Contact with pets before handling and/or consuming food.
    • Handling soil from a garden or outdoor environment.
  • Hand sanitizer can be used instead of soap and water if hands are not visibly dirty.
  • Practice safe food handling and cooking practices including washing ready to eat foods such as fruits and vegetables before consumption.
  • Keep pets clean; wash and bathe pets as soon as possible if they have rolled in feces or the carcass of a dead animal.

There are also several things you can do to protect your dog from being infected with E. multilocularis, including:

  • Prevent dogs from roaming off-leash in unknown areas; keep dogs on a leash.
  • Do not allow pets to handle or ingest live or dead rodents.
  • Do not allow pets to consume any food or water that may have been contaminated by fecal matter from dogs, or other wild animals.
  • Have your pet examined by a veterinarian at least once per year; deworm dogs with praziquantel, as recommended by your veterinarian.