Toronto’s Curb Radii Guideline highlights the many benefits of an appropriately sized curb radii for all road users:

  • Increased visibility between all road users (stop bars placed closer to the intersection, improved sight angle for drivers, better visibility of people walking)
  • reduced crossing distance for people walking (and therefore exposure)
  • reduced vehicle turning speeds (resulting in less frequent and less serious collisions)
  • increased storage space for people waiting to cross

 

Intersection of Driftwood Ave and Yorkwood Gt before:

Driftwood Ave and Yorkwood Gate before curb radii reductions as part of the Vision Zero Road Safety Plan

Intersection of Driftwood Ave and Yorkwood Gt after:

Yorkwood Gate and Driftwood Ave after curb radii reductions as part of the Vision Zero Road Safety Plan

The Truck Apron Guideline is a supplement to the Curb Radii Design Guideline and should be used in conjunction with the Curb Radii Design Guideline. Curb radii at intersection corners must be designed to accommodate all vehicle types that are permitted to turn at an intersection corner. This results in many intersection corners being designed to accommodate larger vehicles which enables smaller vehicles to turn at a higher speed than desired.

Truck aprons allow for intersection corners to be designed for smaller vehicles while accommodating larger vehicles to turn at an intersection corner. The truck apron radius consists of a semi-mountable curb that directs smaller design vehicles to turn at the design speed, while larger trucks are able to mount the curb when completing a right turn. Behind the truck apron is a standard sidewalk curb with a radius to accommodate all turning vehicles. At signalized crossings people walking are only to cross the truck apron portion during the corresponding walk phase and during all other phases to wait behind the sidewalk curb. At unsignalized crossings people walking are able to cross with the same rights and responsibilities as a standard crosswalk.

Dundas St E and Carroll St before the installation of a truck apron:

Dundas and Carroll before the installation of a truck apron

Dundas St E and Carroll after the installation of a truck apron:

Dundas and Carroll after the installation of a truck apron

 

Speed humps are one of the most popular traffic calming measures in Toronto and they have been used successfully to reduce vehicle speeds in residential neighbourhoods.

Speed humps are raised sections of the roadway designed to discourage motor vehicle drivers from travelling at excessive speeds. Studies have indicated that speeds drop by approximately 15km/h between speed humps and about 20km/h at the hump itself.

Speed hump on Shaw St:

Speed hum on Shaw St southbound at Lobb Ave with three people on bikes riding down the street

Speed bumps are raised sections of the roadway designed to discourage motor vehicle drivers from travelling at excessive speeds. They are considerably shorter than humps. Speed bumps encourage drivers to cross at no more than 10 km/h.

Speed bump on Old Brewery Lane:

Speed bump on Old Brewery Lane as a traffic calming measure

The Raised Crosswalks Guideline provides context and design standards to improve the visibility between road users at intersections. They have been shown to decrease driving speeds, increase drivers’ compliance with posted signage and increase yielding to people crossing.  Pedestrian accessibility is often improved.  Raised crosswalks and intersections are typically installed during road reconstruction.  They are proactively being programmed at stop-controlled intersections around schools.

Intersection of High Park Blvd and Indian Rd before:

Aerial image of High Park Blvd and Indian Rd before geometric safety modification

Intersection of High Park Blvd and Indian Rd after:

A raised intersection at High Park Blvd and Indian Rd

A raised intersection at High Park Blvd and Indian Rd

The City is working to make travel by bike safer and more inviting, helping to ease congestion on streets and transit, creating a cleaner environment, and promoting physical activity.

The City’s network of designated cycling routes are used by people to access neighbourhoods and destinations across Toronto. The cycling network includes many types of infrastructure, such as cycle tracks, bicycle lanes, shared roadway routes and multi-use pathways. The City uses different infrastructure and separation for its on-street cycling infrastructure depending on the nature and use of the road.

 

Flexible in-road traffic calming posts are signs that are installed on the centreline of roadways.  They serve to reinforce maximum speed limits while also having a narrowing effect on the lane or roadway, contributing to lower driving speeds.

The Left-Turn Calming treatments aim to proactively reduce the risk of left-turn collisions at signalized intersections. The City is currently piloting these features at select locations, where speed bumps are added to extend medians and “harden” the centreline.  This encourages drivers to approach the turn at a sharper angle, slower speed and with better visibility of people walking and cycling.

Designing a road to fit within its road classification and built environment is important to help regulate the speed of drivers. Opportunities for road narrowing can include a road reconstruction where the curbs can be adjusted and sidewalks added/improved, the addition of cycling infrastructure to better allocate existing road width, or the addition of on-street parking. Toronto has a Lane Width Guideline to help direct road engineering decisions with the aim of promoting a safer public right-of-way.

Glen Rd before narrowing:

Glen Rd before the road is narrowed as part of the Vision Zero Road Safety Plan

Glen Rd after narrowing:

Glen Rd after the road is narrowed as part of the Vision Zero Road Safety Plan

Provision of safe, comfortable and accessible sidewalks on all public streets is a fundamental objective of the Vision Zero 2.0 Road Safety Plan. Sidewalks support safety, accessibility, affordable transportation, physical activity, safe routes to school, aging in place and sustainable growth.

Through the Missing Sidewalk Installation Program, Transportation Services reviews opportunities to install sidewalks on all roadway classifications through bundling with other state-of-good-repair roadway or utility work, as well as stand-alone delivery.

Requests for new sidewalks can be sent to newsidewalks@toronto.ca

Highland Cres before new sidewalk:

Highland Cres before the installation of a new sidewalk

Highland Cres after new sidewalk:

Highland Cres after the installation of a new sidewalk

A Chicane is an alternating curb bulb-out that narrows the roadway in sections and helps reduce the travel speed of vehicles by creating an “S” shaped path. This can be done as part of a road reconstruction where the curbs can be adjusted or through alternating on-street parking from one-side to the other along a stretch of road.

Riverside Dr before:

Riverside Dr before the installation of chicanes as part of the Vision Zero Road Safety Program

Riverside Dr after:

Riverside Dr after the installation of Chicanes as part of the Vision Zero Road Safety Program

Curb extensions, also known as bump-outs are localized road narrowings for short sections where the pavement width is reduced by extending the curb into the roadway. Curb extensions may be constructed at intersection corners or mid-block. Curb extensions have impacts on vehicle speed, pedestrian crossing distance, visibility, pedestrian storage, street furniture, on-street parking and dedicated parking lanes. Toronto’s Curb Extensions Guideline provides additional context and design standards for implementation.

An intersection realignment involves modifying the layout of the roads and sidewalks to improve safety. Possible modifications can include:

  • Realigning and/or narrowing vehicle lanes to reinforce appropriate speeds, lane positioning and yielding behaviour
  • Reducing the crossing distance for pedestrians and increasing visibility between all users.
  • Making space for cyclists to share the road safely

The City of Toronto’s policy is to remove right turn channels if possible and not build new ones. The removal of right turn channels typically takes place during a road reconstruction.

Safety benefits include:

  • No free-flow traffic for people walking to cross (this is especially difficult for people with low or no vision)
  • Ability to provide an Accessible Pedestrian Signal to cross the intersection for those with low or no vision
  • Reduction in right-turn vehicle speed and improved sightlines for vehicles making a right turn

For locations where right turn channels can not be removed, they may be realigned to improve safety.  Truck aprons and raised crossings may also be added.

Before the right turn channel removal at Millwood Rd and Laird Dr:

Before the right turn channel removal at Millwood Rd and Laird Dr

After the right turn channel removal at Millwood Rd and Laird Dr:

Right turn channel removal at Millwood Rd and Laird Dr