Cannabis is a plant that contains chemicals with psychoactive and therapeutic properties. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the chemical used therapeutically in medical cannabis products. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has psychoactive properties which affect the brain (mind-altering). Cannabis products include the dried herb as well as hashish and hashish oil. Cannabis is also known by other names such as marijuana, weed and pot.
- purchase cannabis through a provincially authorized retailer
- possess, but not consume, up to 30 grams of dried legal cannabis in public
- consume cannabis at home
- share cannabis with people 19 years of age or older
The new legislation includes criminal offences for sharing/selling cannabis with/to minors and penalties for individuals who engage youth in cannabis-related offences.
Consuming cannabis in public places is prohibited in Ontario.
Drug-impaired driving remains illegal in Canada. Law enforcement can currently detect drug-impaired driving using Standard Field Sobriety Testing and Drug Recognition Expert evaluation. Roadside Drug Screening Equipment has also been approved for use by law enforcement.
It remains illegal for travellers to take cannabis out of Canada or to bring it back from other countries.
The rules and regulations related to cannabis may be different in other provinces and territories.
The law on cannabis use for medical purposes is different and can be found at Health Canada.
Research shows that cannabis can be harmful to health if consumed frequently and to those who start using cannabis at a young age.
- Cannabis impairs the mental ability to drive or use machinery safely for up to six hours or longer after use.
- Frequent and heavy cannabis use can have significant effects on:
- mental health (especially if there is a family history of mental illness)
- adolescent brain development
- cognitive (e.g. memory, attention span) and psychomotor functioning (e.g. motor coordination, and operative tasks)
- Similar to tobacco smoke, cannabis smoke contains cancer-causing chemicals and other harmful by-products
- Long-term, chronic cannabis smoking is linked to poor respiratory health, including:
- increased coughing and wheezing
- lung and laryngeal cancer
The only way to completely avoid the health harms associated with cannabis is to not consume cannabis. The potential health harms can be reduced by:
- avoiding cannabis consumption during adolescence
- limiting how often you consume and avoiding high-potency cannabis
- not combining tobacco or alcohol with cannabis
- consuming only small amounts of cannabis edibles and then waiting to feel the psychoactive effects, which may take up to two hours
Using a vaporizer is less harmful than smoking and it does not expose others to second-hand smoke. Smoking anything, including tobacco and/or cannabis is harmful to lungs.
Pregnant individuals and individuals with personal/family history of psychosis should avoid cannabis use.
If using cannabis, avoid driving for at least six hours after use, or more if needed.
Cannabis has been found to negatively affect the cognitive and psychomotor skills needed for driving including memory, attention, and stop reaction time. This can significantly impact your ability to drive safely. Driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis causes greater impairment.
The legal age limit for buying and consuming cannabis has been set at 19 years of age in Ontario. Early and frequent cannabis use during adolescence has been linked to a higher and longer-lasting health outcomes, including:
- problems with memory and learning
- having trouble thinking and problem solving
- higher risk of developing psychosis which is a mental state in which you lose touch with reality
The potential risks associated with frequent cannabis use are higher during adolescence and up to age 25 while the brain continues to develop.
Youth who have supportive parents, teachers, and other adults in their lives are less likely to use alcohol and other drugs, including cannabis. When supportive adults create opportunities to talk about cannabis, it in itself is a protective factor against developing substance use issues.
Resources to help you talk to youth about cannabis:
There are no safe limits of cannabis use during pregnancy. Pregnant individuals should avoid cannabis use and exposure to second-hand cannabis smoke. Cannabis use during pregnancy may increase the risk of having a low birth weight baby, small for gestational age baby and preterm birth.
Individuals who are breastfeeding or planning to become pregnant should avoid using cannabis and exposure to second-hand cannabis smoke.